Research and Development:
All intellectual activities consciously pursued and systematically completed generate useful information. Research (also Research and Development) is such an activity. Research organisations in science, technology, social sciences and humanities have been established specifically for this purpose. Research is a creative work contributing to the growth of knowledge for the benefit of man and society. It is a highly organised activity throughout the world which continuously creates a large mass of new information.There has been a dramatic increase of both research institutions and researchers in all branches of knowledge. More 'and more funds are now allocated for conducting research. The progress of a nation is often judged by the percentage of national income that is spent on R&D. The output of research constitutes a major part of information handled by the library and information centres. Since the industrial revolution in the late 18th century, there has been a large-scale growth in this organised body of information and to this is continuously added the output of current research activities. This phenomenon is characterised' by the term "information explosion".
Research activities are not restricted to research institutions alone. Academic institutions - colleges and universities also undertake research and consider it as one of their major tasks, besides imparting formal education.