Reproductive health disorders to dairy livestock accounts to a loss of about Rs 30,000- 50,000 crore annually to the nation. Better herd management can minimize the occurrence of diseases and fertility problems which in turn could enhance the profit of dairy farmer. The productive and reproductive efficiency of Indian livestock, especially of animals owned by small farmers, is usually poor not only due to lower genetic potential of our livestock but primarily due to various stressors related to environment, climate, nutrition, inadequate health cover (prevention and control of diseases) and improper management practices.
Fertility status of cows and buffaloes in the rural areas- in which most of our dairy livestock abound- is much more alarming compared to that of organized sector. Various surveys conducted indicate that anestrous and repeat breeding are perhaps the most serious problems in female dairy livestock with the collective incidence ranging from 30 to 50% in many situations. At a micro-level the farmer incurs a loss of at least Rs 2000 to 2500 per animal during one estrous cycle of 21 days due to anestrus or repeat breeding.