Refining of petroleum, Chemistry

Assignment Help:

Refining of petroleum:

Petroleum (crude) extracted from earth's crust is an intimate mixture of many organic compounds. Crude petroleum needs to be purified and its components are to be separated. This process of purification of crude petroleum and separation of its constituents into useful products is called refining of petroleum. The process of petroleum refining involves three steps.


1) Separation of water: Crude petroleum consists of salt water mixed with components of petroleum. Water is separated by allowing crude oil to flow between two highly charged electrodes. Water gets separated and settles on electrodes which is later removed.

2) Removal of sulphur compounds: Crude oil free from water is treated with copper oxide sulfur present in crude oil reacts with copper oxide and precipitates copper sulphate which is removed by filtration.

3) Fractionation: The crude oil which is free from water and sulphur is heated to 400°C in an iron tank. All components of crude oil get evaporated leaving behind a residue called 'asphalt' The vapours are passed through a tall, cylindrical fractionating column. Fractionating column contains large number of horizontal stainless steel trays. Each tray consists of a chimney which is covered with a loose cap. The crude oil vapours go up in the fractionating column and the components are cooled and condensed at different heights depending on boiling points of the components. The components with height boiling points are condensed at the lower trays and the components with lower boiling points are condensed at higher trays.
The products obtained after fractionation are
(a) uncondensed gas - used as fuel
(b) petroleum ether - used as solvent
(c) naptha - used as solvent and fuel
(d) kerosene - used as motor fuel
(e) diesel - fuel for diesel engines
(f) heavy oil - as lubricant
(g) residue - as road tar.


Related Discussions:- Refining of petroleum

Calculation of caco3 equivalents, Q. Analysis of water gave the following r...

Q. Analysis of water gave the following results H 2 SO 4 = 196Mg/L; MgSO 4 = 24Mg/L, CaSO 4 = 272Mg/L and NaCl = 25Mg/L. Water is to be supplied to the town of the popul

Chemistry Assignment, Hi. I''m in year 11 and writing a chemistry report on...

Hi. I''m in year 11 and writing a chemistry report on the concentration of HCl in brick cleaner. The product I''ve chosen is a 20L solution of HCl, 30% HCl. I have to find the conc

Explain nerst equation., The tendency to metal to lose electrons or tendenc...

The tendency to metal to lose electrons or tendency of its ions to gain electrons depends upon the concentration of the ions in solution. At the same time, the tendency to lose or

The order of filling of electrons in the orbitals of an atom, The order of ...

The order of filling of electrons in the orbitals of an atom will be : (1) 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 5s,                        (2)  4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d        (3) 5s, 4p, 3d, 4d, 5s

Carbocations in benzene ring, How to find stability of carbocations in benz...

How to find stability of carbocations in benzene ring..??? How to find optically inactive isomers  ??? (say of--C2H5Cl) How to find the weakest C-X (carbon-halogen bond in a benz

Chlorine is electron, Although cholrine is electoon withdrawing group.yet i...

Although cholrine is electoon withdrawing group.yet it is ortho nd para directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactants.why? Ans) Halogens are an exception of the dea

How is aniline obtained from benzene, (a) How is aniline obtained from benz...

(a) How is aniline obtained from benzene? (b) Why are the secondary amines more basic than primary amines? Describe. (c) Write the complete chemical reactions for the convers

Write Your Message!

Captcha
Free Assignment Quote

Assured A++ Grade

Get guaranteed satisfaction & time on delivery in every assignment order you paid with us! We ensure premium quality solution document along with free turntin report!

All rights reserved! Copyrights ©2019-2020 ExpertsMind IT Educational Pvt Ltd