Reed-Swamp Stage - Hydrarch
This stage is also known as amphibious stage, as the plants of the community are rooted but most parts of their shoots remain exposed to air. Species of Typha, Sagittaria and Phragmites are some examples of this stage. These plants have well developed root system and they form dense patches of vegetation.
The reaction of the reed-swamp plants is not only to shade the surface of the water but also to build up the pond margins by retaining the sedimentary materials washed into the lake and by the very rapid accumulation of plant remains. Not only is the plant population much denser than before but also mechanical tissues, which resist decay, are much more highly developed in plants with aerial organs. After the invasion and activities of these plants, the water level is very much reduced, and finally it becomes unsuitable for these plants also.