A quality circle is a completely voluntary group of 6 to 8 workers of a shop or who meet regularly during company time once very fortnight or ever month under die leadership of a trained foreman or section head to examine work related problems that affect the quality of output and to recommend to the management possible solutions to those problems. The foremen for this purpose are trained in advance in basic statistical and problem solving techniques as well as in handling groups. The motivation to form such a group comes solely from the worker desire to do something creative. Nobody is paid to join nobody is forced to join and nobody is penalized for not taking part. The circle once formed sets its own terms of reference selects its problems ( and not individual grievances) and presents its recommendations for their solution. In other words it functions according to its own perceived needs rather than in response to externally determined criteria.