Punctuated Equilibrium Model
Connie Gersick's model of group development challenges the traditional forming/norming/storming/performing view of group development. The research of Gersick's showed that groups tend to follow a trajectory up to the midpoint of their project. There is a concentrated group of changes in norms, processes, and behaviors within the group at this midpoint. The group settles on a new trajectory after this midpoint. This model suggests (and subsequent research has indicated) that interventions aimed at improving group effectiveness are most effectively made at the midpoint of a group's life. Managers can make midpoints through the setting of milestones and intermediate deadlines.