Protoplasm, Biology

Protoplasm

  • Also known as bioplast.
  • It is gelly like & semi liquid in appearance.
  • It is translucent in nature.
  • It is colourless, oderless, viscous, elastic & granular in nature.
  • Protoplasm is essential for life.
  • Protoplasm is the fluid along with all the structures of cell bounded with in the limits of cell membrane.
  • Protoplasm includes plasmalemma, cytoplasm & nucleus.
  • Different types of granules are embeded in it, capable to perform all vital activities, so protoplasm is vector for vital activities.
  • Strusburger differentiated protoplasm into somatoplasm & germplasm in body.
  • In Amoeba somatoplasm & germplasm are not differentiated so body is known as soma.
  • Main component of protoplasm is water, functions as solvent.
  • By increasing age water conetents are reduced so activity becomes dull.
  • In dorment seed water is less as a result seeds are inactive.
  • According to Renke & Roderwald analysis of protoplasm is not possible in living state because most of the reactions are exothermic.
  • On analysis water, CO & amonia are formed.
  • Due to proteins protoplasm is coloidal in nature.
  • It is polyphagic and reversible.
  • Acidic group of protein controls chemical equilibrium.
  • Protoplasm is crystallo-colloidal mixture, explained by Fisher & Hardy.
  • It's particle size is .001m to .1m..
  • In colloidal sol, gel, arosol & emulsion are clear.
  • Except arosol remaining 3 present in living system.
  • Colloidal system is composed of 2 stages-

(i) Dispersion phase/ Continuous form / Intermicellus

(ii) Dispersed phase/ discontinuous form/ micellus

  • On the basis of these 2 stages, colloids are of following types -

(A) Sol - Dispersion phase is liquid. Dispersed phase is solid. In sol stage protoplasm in less viscous. Sol stage occure in many living cells. It is less granular. Protein chain is more folded.

(B) Gel - Dispersion phase is solid. Dispersed phase is liquid. Protoplasm is more viscous. It is more granular. Protein chain is unfolded.

  • Sol stage provides          - Cyclosis, Brownian movements, High reactivity to protoplasm.
  • Gel stage provides          - Elasticity, Contractibility, Rigidity, Viscosity
  • Sol gel stages are interchangeable, so protoplasm is a reversible colloidal system.
  • Non-living colloids are irreversible.
  • Protoplasm has motion because of cyclosis, brownian movement & amoeboid movement.
  • These movement depends on  - age of cells, amount of water, genetic factors, chemical composition of protoplasm.
  • With increase in age, brownian movement is stoped.
  • So, ultimately it becomes inactive i.e. death of protoplasm.
  • Mg+2 controls sol gel stages.
  • Sol gel conversion is a physico chemical reaction.

(c) Emulsion

  • Two liquids of different density are mixed, e.g. haemolymph.

(d) Aerosol

  • Solid particles are dispersed in gas.
Posted Date: 10/9/2012 2:24:09 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Protoplasm, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Protoplasm, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Protoplasm Discussions

Write discussion on Protoplasm
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Polymorphism in Lysosomes Polymorphism, i.e. existence of a structure in more than one form, is an important feature of lysosomes. Several different forms of lysosomes have been

Explain the Coenzyme in enzyme catalyzed reactions? Thiamin functions as the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) in the inetabolism of carbohydrates and branched- chain amino

E s o pha g e a l obstruction It is also known as choke. It may be acute or chronic and is characterized by inability to swallow, regurgitation and bloat. E t

Secondary Prevention: The various aspects of  secondary prevention are:  1)  Early Diagnosis  and  Case Finding  This can be achieved by  educating the public and commun

What are the main representatives of the pteridophytes? Is this plant group cryptogamic or phanerogamic? The better known pteridophytes are the ferns and the maidenhairs, from

What are natural active immunization and artificial active immunization? Natural active immunization is that in which a last natural infection induces the primary immune respon

disadvanatge of protozoa

Define some Advantages of breast milk for Infants? 1) Breast milk is a simple and natural method of feeding. It is hygienic, inexpensive and available at all times at the righ

Lipids All animal tissues contain lipids or fats as essential components of cell membrane. It is also stored in certain tissues. Lipids are body's chief source of energy and

Explain HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is another example of  chronic infections.  Its existence was discovered recently in 1981. The spread  of  HIV infection  is widespread  and  can  pro