Proto-oncogenes, Biology


Proto-oncogenes are common genes present. In all organisms and emerge to be highly conserved in the course of evolution. They have been isolated in species ranging from yeast to extremely evolved vertebrates including human being. This high degree of conservation implies their crucial role in the cell. Genes homologous to cellular proto- oncogenes are found in retroviruses recognized to cause cancer in various animal species. These viruses transform cells either by inserting their oncogenes in the host genome or by being present in numerous copies in the host cell. It is thought that the retroviruses picked up these oncogenes from metazoan cells they infected. As, their discovery more than 60 proto-oncogenes have been identified. Each has a role in mitosis. A number proto-oncogene encodes growth factors, proteins that stimulate cell proliferation. Several proto-oncogenes encode receptors for growth factors. A large number of them encode intracellular transducers, proteins which bring signals from cell receptors to nucleus, and transcription Factors which turn on gene transcription in the nucleus. The products of all proto-oncogenes work harmoniously at the right time in right amounts to induce cell division and differentiation.

Posted Date: 1/31/2013 7:49:40 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Proto-oncogenes, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Proto-oncogenes, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Proto-oncogenes Discussions

Write discussion on Proto-oncogenes
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What is Muscular dystrophy Muscular dystrophy :- Defects in the muscle due to faulty nutrition.

Based on your reading of the article "Origin of Life on Earth" which of the following is a false statement regarding how life developed? A. As proteins are needed for the repli

Q. What are the classes of lipoproteins in the blood? Blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids) being insoluble in blood need a ship to travel in our body; it

What is the typical vegetation of the grasslands? The Grasslands are mainly formed of herbaceous (nonwoody) vegetation: grass, small trees and bushes.

What are protein hydrolysates? Proteins that have been treated with enzymes to break them down into amino acids or shorter peptides are referred to as protein hydrolysates. Pr

Explain about the Proteins? Proteins, as you may already know, are made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and usually sulphur. Proteins are built up of a large number of

What is the pineal gland? The pineal gland, also called as pineal body or epiphysis, is situated centrally in the head. It secretes the hormone melatonin, a hormone formed at n

how to make a assignment on recent research on marine microbiology

A new drug named ANTAG-CaSR has been developed that is an antagonist at calcium-binding sites of CaSRs (Calcium-Sensing Receptors) in the plasma membranes of parathyroid gland cell

Why are most ammoniotelic beings aquatic animals? Aquatic animals, like crustaceans, bony fishes and amphibian larvae, usually are ammoniotelic since ammonia diffuses more easi