PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
Ordinarily speaking the probability of an event denotes the likelihood of its happening. The value of probability ranges between 0 an 1. If an event is certain to happen it probability would be i and if it is p certain that the event would not take place then the probability of its happening is 0. Ordinarily in social science the probability of the happening of an event is rarely 1 or 0. The reason is that in social sciences we deal with situation where there is always as element of uncertainty about the happening or not happening of an event. For this reason the probability of the events is somewhere between 0 and 1.
The general rule of the happening of an event is that if an event can happen in ways and fail to happen in n ways them the probability of the happening of the vent is given by.
P = m / m+ n or
P= Number of cases favourable to the occurrence of the event / total number of mutually exclusive and exhaustive cases
Odds in favour of the occurrence of the event
= m/n= Number of cases favourable to the occurrence of the event/ the number of cases against the occurrence of the event
Odds against the occurrence of the event
m/n= The number of cases against the occurrence of the event/ the number of cases favourable to the occurrence of the even.