In an economy, at a given point of time, there will be people/entities called savers the surplus units, whose current income exceeds their current expenditure while there are others called investors/deficit units whose current expenditure exceeds their income.The function of a financial system is to channelize the funds from the surplus units to the deficit units. An efficient financial system not only encourages savings and investments but also efficiently allocates resources in different investment avenues and thus accelerates the rate of economic development.
Capital markets enable the flow of capital in the most profitable channels. Companies, which have more profitable investment opportunities are normally able to raise funds in the capital market because its shares are listed on the stock exchange. The performance of the company is reflected in the market price of the equity stocks. Put differently, the company's performance is more visible in the eyes of the public. Such a public exposure normally induces companies to raise their standard of performance.The companies, public or private, raise their long-term finance from the primary market. Primary market is a major channel through which the household savings are mobilized by companies and the Government. The issuance of shares and debentures takes place in this market. The issuance of shares or debentures may be through a public offer or a rights issue. Industries raise capital in the form of financial obligations. These financial obligations may be in the form of shares or debentures.