Primacy of MOSFET
In the year 1959, Dawon Kahng and Martin M. (John) Atalla at Bell laboratory invented the MOSFET. Operationally and structurally diverse from the bipolar junction transistor, the MOSFET was created by putting an insulating layer on the surface of the semiconductor and after that placing a metallic gate electrode on that.
It employed crystalline silicon for the semiconductor and a thermally oxidized layer of silicon dioxide for the insulator. The silicon MOSFET did not produce localized electron traps at the interface in between the silicon and its native oxide layer, and so was inherently free from the trapping and scattering of carriers that had impeded the performance of earlier field-effect transistors. Subsequent the (expensive) development of clean rooms to decrease contamination to levels never before thought essential, and of photolithography and the planar process to permit circuits to be made in few steps, the Si-SiO2 system possessed such types of technical attractions as low cost of production (on a per circuit basis) and ease of integration. Largely due to these two factors, the MOSFET has become the most extensively used type of transistor in integrated circuits (ICs).