Presenting features of exstrophy of the bladder, Biology

Presenting Features


Anterior abdominal wall and anterior bladder wall is deficient and on the surface everted posterior wall of bladder with two ureteric orifices is seen.

  1. At the time of birth mucosa of bladder may be thin and smooth but later it becomes edematous, reddened and friable. This may lead to cystitis cystica and the mucosal polyps. 
  2. In case of female children there is bifid clitoris and roof of urethra is missing. 
  3. Male children present with epispadiasis with dorsal chordae. Penis appears to be short and is bend upward. 
  4. Testes are undescended and lie at or near external ring. This may be associated with inguinal hernia. 
  5. Public bones and rectus muscles are widely separated. 
  6. There may be varying degree of incontinece due to diversion of Levator ani muscle caused by separation of pubic bones. 
  7. Anus is placed anteriorly and unblicus is pushed down wards which results in the reduced gap between the two.
Posted Date: 10/27/2012 2:09:28 AM | Location : United States







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