Prepaid metering is the state of art for single and three-phase although current metering, and should be implemented through utilities desirous of protecting their revenue. Among the various choices of types of prepayment meters, the key-pad based technology is far superior to other techniques such as smart cards as the latter is prone to tampers and is inconvenient to consumers.
The achievable level of losses is subject to several factors such as
Therefore, with a view to meet the economic loss performance, target levels and maximum tolerable loss levels for every voltage level on the system might be taken as display in Table.
Table: Proposed Targets for Economic Loss Levels
Levels for Peak Power Losses
Maximum Tolerable %
Step-up transformer & EHV transmission system
Transformationto intermediate voltage level, transmission system and step-down to sub transmission voltage level
Sub-transmission system & step-down to distribution voltage level
Distribution lines & service connections
Total Power Losses