Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h, Biology

Duck plague

Duck plague, caused by a member of Herpesviridae, has world wide distribution and occurs among domestic and wild ducks, geese, swans and waterfowls.


Epidemiology:
Major epidemics of duck plague are being from major duck breeding countries at regular intervals. The clinical features are anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, photophobia, and extreme thirst, ataxia leading to recumbency, tremors and watery diarrhoea. Morbidity and mortality vary from 5 to 100%. Ducks showing clinical signs invariably die. On autopsy, extensive vasculitis, blood in body cavities including the GI tract, petechial haemorrhages on various organs are some of the pathological changes seen. Besides, diphtheritic plaques in esophagus, caecum, rectum, cloaca and bursa are also noticed.


Diagnosis:
It is diagnosed by clinical signs, postmortem findings, mortality pattern and demonstration of intranuclear inclusion bodies in various organs. FAT is used for laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis.


Control: The disease can be effectively controlled by using chick embryo-adapted attenuated vaccine.

Duck hepatitis


Duck hepatitis, caused by an avian Enterovirus under the genus Enterovirus of  Picornaviridae family, was first recognized in 1945 in ducks reared in Long Island, New York. There is only one serotype, and the natural history of virus is similar to that of avian encephalomyelitis virus. Goslings, turkeys and poults, chicks of guinea fowl and quails, but not chickens, are susceptible to experimental infection. The disease predominantly occurs in ducklings of less than 21 days of age. The disease runs a swift course, involving the entire flock within 3 days and resulting in almost 100% mortality. The affected birds exhibit certain typical clinical signs, viz. standing still with closed eyes, falling to one side, paddling spasmodically and dying in a few hours. The necropsy findings are mainly restricted to involvement of liver which is enlarged, oedematous and mottled with hemorrhages. Encephalitis with neuronal necrosis, gliosis and perivascular cuffing is present. The virus may be isolated in cell cultures or in 10 day old embryonated hen eggs (allantoic inoculation) . FAT is also used for early diagnosis of the viral antigen. Duck hepatitis needs to be differentially diagnosed from duck plague and Newcastle disease. Recovered ducks are immune. The disease is controlled by using attenuated, egg-adapted virus vaccine. Hyperimmune serum is helpful in saving in-contact birds and reducing losses during outbreaks.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 9:30:06 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h Discussions

Write discussion on Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
PSYCHOSOCIAL THERAPY: Psychosocial therapy is one of  the important treatment modaIities used for the patients with mental disorders. It is given along with other therapies or

what is the remedy of infertility

It corresponds to the anterior and inferior interventricular grooves. Its right side is convex and bulges to the right ventricle. The septum has a posterior border which separates

Q. What are the main factors that affect the growth of a population? The major factors that make populations grow are births and immigration. The major factors that make popula

Explain the term Ferns? Ferns are plants that have vessels that conduct water, minerals, and nutrients, and reproduce through spores, rather than seeds. Ferns are therefore o

Q. Do the phosphate and the pentose groups give heterogeneity or homogeneity to the nucleic acid chains? What about the nitrogen- containing groups? Supported by that, which of tho

Name the high-energy complex generated during the conversion of succinyl CoA to succinate in the citric acid cycle GTP  or  ATP is  the high-energy  complex generated during th

Indinavir (IDV, Crixivan) Indinavir has good oral bioavailability. Indinavir 800 mg combined with ritonavir 100 mg  (both b.i.d. for ease of use) was comparable in effectiven

What is the evolutionary importance of the emergence of seeds in the plant kingdom? The evolutionary significance of the seed is related to the plant capability of distant colo

photosynthesis moderates global warming, briefly explain this statement