Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h, Biology

Duck plague

Duck plague, caused by a member of Herpesviridae, has world wide distribution and occurs among domestic and wild ducks, geese, swans and waterfowls.


Epidemiology:
Major epidemics of duck plague are being from major duck breeding countries at regular intervals. The clinical features are anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, photophobia, and extreme thirst, ataxia leading to recumbency, tremors and watery diarrhoea. Morbidity and mortality vary from 5 to 100%. Ducks showing clinical signs invariably die. On autopsy, extensive vasculitis, blood in body cavities including the GI tract, petechial haemorrhages on various organs are some of the pathological changes seen. Besides, diphtheritic plaques in esophagus, caecum, rectum, cloaca and bursa are also noticed.


Diagnosis:
It is diagnosed by clinical signs, postmortem findings, mortality pattern and demonstration of intranuclear inclusion bodies in various organs. FAT is used for laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis.


Control: The disease can be effectively controlled by using chick embryo-adapted attenuated vaccine.

Duck hepatitis


Duck hepatitis, caused by an avian Enterovirus under the genus Enterovirus of  Picornaviridae family, was first recognized in 1945 in ducks reared in Long Island, New York. There is only one serotype, and the natural history of virus is similar to that of avian encephalomyelitis virus. Goslings, turkeys and poults, chicks of guinea fowl and quails, but not chickens, are susceptible to experimental infection. The disease predominantly occurs in ducklings of less than 21 days of age. The disease runs a swift course, involving the entire flock within 3 days and resulting in almost 100% mortality. The affected birds exhibit certain typical clinical signs, viz. standing still with closed eyes, falling to one side, paddling spasmodically and dying in a few hours. The necropsy findings are mainly restricted to involvement of liver which is enlarged, oedematous and mottled with hemorrhages. Encephalitis with neuronal necrosis, gliosis and perivascular cuffing is present. The virus may be isolated in cell cultures or in 10 day old embryonated hen eggs (allantoic inoculation) . FAT is also used for early diagnosis of the viral antigen. Duck hepatitis needs to be differentially diagnosed from duck plague and Newcastle disease. Recovered ducks are immune. The disease is controlled by using attenuated, egg-adapted virus vaccine. Hyperimmune serum is helpful in saving in-contact birds and reducing losses during outbreaks.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 9:30:06 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h Discussions

Write discussion on Poultry and duck diseases-duck plague, duck hepatitis duck h
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What is the type of genetic inheritance that determines the ABO blood group system? What are the relations of dominance among the involved alleles? The inheritance of the ABO b

#questiocan you help in a biology question?.

Depth and Currents Depth The sea is very deep varying in different regions. Generally life extends to all depths but is confined more to the continental shelf and

One can verify the age of an oak tree by counting the annual rings of formed by the. a.  primary xylem, apical meristem b.  secondary phloem, vascular cambium c.  dermal

Define the Use of Computers in Numerical Taxonomy The use of computers in numerical taxonomy has made it possible to compare a large number of characters from many organisms wi

General characters of phylum protozoa

Determine the Foos Sources of cyanocobalamin? Vitamin B I2 is unique among vitamins in the sense that it is mostly found in foods of animal origin but is not generally present

How to Defibrillate? Three shocks should be given initially in a 200J - 200J - 360J sequence. For most recoverable situations, 200J would be adequate and results in least myco

Diagrams of organisms in phylum porifera

What are the advancement of cnidaria over protozoa