Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Biology

Avian influenza

The etiological a gentisa via ninfluenz a type A virus und e r the family Orthomyxoviridae. Avian influenza pandemics in Pakistan, Nepal and Myanamar (1995) and in India (2006 and 2008) have caused concern and anxiety among the scientists and poultry farmers.
 
The virus, however, exists in a variety of feral migratory birds viz. fowl, duck and turkey in subclinical form. In domesticated poultry the pathogenicity of the virus ranges from non-clinical forms to a fulminant respiratory syndrome with a high rate of mortality, the latter form being designated as 'Fowl plague' in view of its devasting nature.


Epidemiology:
The virus spreads rapidly both by direct and indirect contacts.Migratory birds ducks, pig and turkey act as reservoirs and play a major role in viral transmission to poultry. Eggs laid at active stage of infection are contaminated both outside and inside. The incubation period is short ranging from a few hr to 3 days depending on the dose, age of the bird and the virus strain.


Diagnosis: T he disea se is d ia gno sed by se r olo gic al co nfir ma tio n using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test with convalescent sera, AGID with nucleo protein or matrix protein monoclonal antibody, single radial haemolysis test or by ELISA using nucleo-protein monoclonal antibody. The virus is successfully isolated in embryonating hen eggs by inoculating processed nasopharyngeal or cloacal swab samples collected from clinical cases.


Control: The disease can be controlled by using inactivated vaccines and applying other control measures, viz. (i) physical separation of healthy birds from ailing birds, (ii) minimizing the contact of poultry with feral and migratory birds, (iii) proper disposal of carcasses, (iv) creating a disease-free zone at international borders by de-population, (v) banning importation of biologicals, reagents, poultry, pigs and their products from disease reporting countries,  and (vi) periodical screening of poultry for maintaining the disease-free status.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 9:28:31 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza Discussions

Write discussion on Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Define Supplementation for prevention of vitamin A deficiency? Administration of large doses of vitamin A to children at risk has been the most popular approach to control nutr

Air pollutants - Effects on plants Particulate matter such as cement, coal, petro coke, dust, and fly-ash screen the light and thus change its quantity and quality. Dust plug

what should i write in conclusion

In the lack of tryptophan shown in the figure, a trp repressor protein encoded by a split operon, trpR that is synthesized and forms a dimer.  Furthermore, this is inactive and so

Which is the type of gamete (for a given trait) produced by a dominant homozygous individual? What is the genotypical proportion of these gametes? What about a recessive homozygous

What is Erythropoietin (EPO)   A.  is secreted by peritubular interstitial cells of the kidney cortex.   B.  acts by increasing the production of red blood cells by cells in

Q How are the concepts of the DNA, gene, and proteins characteristics of living beings related? Characteristics of organisms depend on chemical reactions that take place in the

In what ways could human activity lead to the extinction of a species in an area? Human activity could lead to extinction of a species by (a) over-hunting, e.g. elephants, rhin

State the Principle of Adaptation The first principle is that the central goal of assessment is to promote the adaptation of the child, rather than simply to document the prese

How does substrate concentration affect the initial rate of an enzyme- catalyzed reaction?