Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Biology

Avian influenza

The etiological a gentisa via ninfluenz a type A virus und e r the family Orthomyxoviridae. Avian influenza pandemics in Pakistan, Nepal and Myanamar (1995) and in India (2006 and 2008) have caused concern and anxiety among the scientists and poultry farmers.
 
The virus, however, exists in a variety of feral migratory birds viz. fowl, duck and turkey in subclinical form. In domesticated poultry the pathogenicity of the virus ranges from non-clinical forms to a fulminant respiratory syndrome with a high rate of mortality, the latter form being designated as 'Fowl plague' in view of its devasting nature.


Epidemiology:
The virus spreads rapidly both by direct and indirect contacts.Migratory birds ducks, pig and turkey act as reservoirs and play a major role in viral transmission to poultry. Eggs laid at active stage of infection are contaminated both outside and inside. The incubation period is short ranging from a few hr to 3 days depending on the dose, age of the bird and the virus strain.


Diagnosis: T he disea se is d ia gno sed by se r olo gic al co nfir ma tio n using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test with convalescent sera, AGID with nucleo protein or matrix protein monoclonal antibody, single radial haemolysis test or by ELISA using nucleo-protein monoclonal antibody. The virus is successfully isolated in embryonating hen eggs by inoculating processed nasopharyngeal or cloacal swab samples collected from clinical cases.


Control: The disease can be controlled by using inactivated vaccines and applying other control measures, viz. (i) physical separation of healthy birds from ailing birds, (ii) minimizing the contact of poultry with feral and migratory birds, (iii) proper disposal of carcasses, (iv) creating a disease-free zone at international borders by de-population, (v) banning importation of biologicals, reagents, poultry, pigs and their products from disease reporting countries,  and (vi) periodical screening of poultry for maintaining the disease-free status.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 9:28:31 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza Discussions

Write discussion on Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Respiratory Organs These are the organs regarded with the gaseous exchange, i.e., intake .of oxygen and output of carbon dioxide. They have generally greater rate of gas exch

What is the logic of the transfusional compatibility concerning the ABO blood group system? A transfusional compatibility for the ABO system takes into account the antigens pre

Define Carbohydrate requirement for cancer patients? Adequate amount (60% of total energy) of carbohydrates should be provided. If a very high calorie diet is being given, emph

What do digestive enzymes do to food? Digestive enzymes suspend food; make food soluble, break large insoluble food molecules into smaller, soluble molecules

Q. Which kind of polarity do fat-soluble and water-soluble substances respectively have? Ans. Water-soluble substances are behave as polar molecules, i.e., they have e

Plants are the source of a large variety of biochemicals which are metabolites of both primary and secondary metabolism. But secondary metabolites are of much greater interest s


What is Glucose Intolerance and Diabetes ? Insulin resistance, by perinsulinaemia and glucose intolerance appear to promote atherosclerosis. The prevalence of CAD raises from 2

Explain Environmental Factors influencing food production? You probably know that no agricultural region has a constant climate throughout the year. This is true even in the tr

charactoristics of offset