Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Biology

Avian influenza

The etiological a gentisa via ninfluenz a type A virus und e r the family Orthomyxoviridae. Avian influenza pandemics in Pakistan, Nepal and Myanamar (1995) and in India (2006 and 2008) have caused concern and anxiety among the scientists and poultry farmers.
 
The virus, however, exists in a variety of feral migratory birds viz. fowl, duck and turkey in subclinical form. In domesticated poultry the pathogenicity of the virus ranges from non-clinical forms to a fulminant respiratory syndrome with a high rate of mortality, the latter form being designated as 'Fowl plague' in view of its devasting nature.


Epidemiology:
The virus spreads rapidly both by direct and indirect contacts.Migratory birds ducks, pig and turkey act as reservoirs and play a major role in viral transmission to poultry. Eggs laid at active stage of infection are contaminated both outside and inside. The incubation period is short ranging from a few hr to 3 days depending on the dose, age of the bird and the virus strain.


Diagnosis: T he disea se is d ia gno sed by se r olo gic al co nfir ma tio n using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test with convalescent sera, AGID with nucleo protein or matrix protein monoclonal antibody, single radial haemolysis test or by ELISA using nucleo-protein monoclonal antibody. The virus is successfully isolated in embryonating hen eggs by inoculating processed nasopharyngeal or cloacal swab samples collected from clinical cases.


Control: The disease can be controlled by using inactivated vaccines and applying other control measures, viz. (i) physical separation of healthy birds from ailing birds, (ii) minimizing the contact of poultry with feral and migratory birds, (iii) proper disposal of carcasses, (iv) creating a disease-free zone at international borders by de-population, (v) banning importation of biologicals, reagents, poultry, pigs and their products from disease reporting countries,  and (vi) periodical screening of poultry for maintaining the disease-free status.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 9:28:31 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza Discussions

Write discussion on Poultry and duck diseases-avian influenza
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Preliminary screening stage of battery During the preliminary screening stage in the development of the battery, items in the original pool that did not attain satisfactory int

Pericardial Valves: Carpentier Edwards (Perimount Valve) :  Pericardium preserved in gluteraldehyde and mounted on flexible stent is available for mitral and aortic positions

Hydropericardium syndrome Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), known as Leechi disease, is caused by Avian Adenovirus 4. HPS has been responsible for high mortality ranging from 6

If water dousing, homeopathic cures, and so on work for just me but not for anyone else, it is still science.

Seed Coat Effects In some seeds dormancy is imposed by the presence of the seed coat; if this is removed, the seed germinates. Two possible types of mechanisms could be invol

How many pairs of electrons do the two oxygen atoms in an oxygen molecule share with each  other? Explain your answer. The oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons, sinc

Q. During mitotic anaphase is there separation of identical chromatids or separation of homologous chromosomes? In the anaphase of mitosis the identical chromatids complete and

Q. Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection? 1) Sterilization is defined as freeing the object or substance from all life of any kind. It is the process by which a

The PCR   (polymerase   chain   reaction)   is   an   extremely   simple   as   immensely powerful methods.  It permits enormous  amplification  of any particular  sequence of DNA

A solid compound was found to contain 42.11% C, 51.46%O and 6.43% H by weight. The molecular weight of the compound was 341. What is the molecular formula of the compound?