Postparturient haemoglobinuria, Biology

Postparturient haemoglobinuria

It is also known as puerperal haemoglobinuria or nutritional haemoglobinurea and results in intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and anaemia.

Etiology: The disease is caused owing to low phosphorus level in the diet and excessive ingestion of cruciferous plants. Mortality rates may be up to 40%. This disease is found more in crossbred cows than buffaloes. It occurs usually 2-4 weeks after calving. The high producing dairy animals in their third to sixth lactation are commonly affected.

Pathogenesis: Low phosphorus in diet causes hypophosphatemia. Lactation further reduces its level in blood. There is reduction in glycolysis and ATP synthesis in erythrocytes which increases fragility of RBCs and haemoglo­binuria occurs. Copper and selenium also play role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Due to copper deficiency, there is deficiency of superoxide dismutase that helps in converting free radical oxygen into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen and thereby, cells are protected against the harmful effects of free radicals. However, in deficiency of this dismutase enzyme, radical oxygen is available which damage the cells and helps in production of the disease.

Clinical signs: Affected animals show signs of inappetance, weakness, reduction in milk yield and haemoglobinuria. The mucous membranes become pale and body temperature is normal initially followed by subnormal in later stage. They also suffer from dehydration and their faeces becoming dry and firm. Later on jaundice and depraved appetite develop along with dyspnoea and tachycardia. Such animals usually die within few days due to anaemic anoxia.

Diagnosis: The disease is diagnosed by symptoms and confirmed by urine examination which reveals presence of the haemoglobin. Blood analysis reveals low level of phosphorus and RBCs have heinz-bodies. The disease should be differentiated from leptospirosis which has acute fever, red coloured milk, and abortions; bacillary haemoglobinuria has acute fever, hemoglobinuria, dysentry and abdominal pain; babesiosis has history of ticks infestation, acute fever, abortions and blood smear positive for Babesia spp.; chronic copper poisoning has severe jaundice but no fever and anaplasmosis which does not reveal haemoglobinuria, high fever, has history of ticks and blood smear reveals positive result for parasite.

Treatment: In severe cases, transfusion of large amounts of whole blood @ 4-6 liters is recommended. For the replacement of phosphorus, 120 g sodium acid phosphate can be dissolved in 600 ml water and half of it is given by intravenous route, and half by subcutaneous route. Use of 125 g bone meal or dicalcium phosphate given twice daily by oral route is also highly effective. Besides, they should be given haematinic mixture containing copper, iron and cobalt salts by oral route. The animals kept in the areas suspected for having copper deficiency, should be given inorganic copper salts orally or organic copper preparations by parenteral route. The use of ascorbic acid has also been found beneficial for its treatment.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:41:38 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Postparturient haemoglobinuria, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Postparturient haemoglobinuria, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Postparturient haemoglobinuria Discussions

Write discussion on Postparturient haemoglobinuria
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
It is important to explain to the patient about importance of taking treatment regularly. In case he misses the dose or takes medicine or insulin irregularly, explain the side effe

Puerperal Psychosis: Child birth can precipitate schizophrenia, depression and mania. Management:  it  depends on  the nature of the symptoms. Danger  to  self and othcrs (inc

In most axons, myelin sheath is interrupted at intervals of about 1 millimeter or more. These interruptions are known as: a) Collaterals b) Nodes of Ranvier (pron: ron-vee-ay)

Q. Show the process of Healing abutment? Healing abutments are therefore not considered ideal. It is for this reason that the definitive abutment, selected at first stage surge

Q. What are the cytochromes? Cytochromes are proteins of the interior mitochondrial membrane that are specialized in electron transfer and participate in the respiratory chain.

Explain Adverse Effects of Caspofungin Although generally well tolerated, caspofungin occasionally causes rash, fever and mild hepatic toxicity (Medical Letter 2001; 43:58). An

What is Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation? It is crucial to get the timing just right as to when to discontinue mechanical ventilation and extubate. If too early, this might

Q. Explain Left Atrial Enlargement ? This chamber is oval in the frontal projection and flattened in lateral projection. On the PA view, its appendage makes a small contributio

A patient has total destruction of all of the beta-islet cells of the pancreas.  Prior to receiving treatment, this patient will have A. high blood plasma levels of glucose.

Q. Fats requirement in pectic ulcer? Fats: These delay the gastric emptying. The products of fat digestion in the small intestine stimulate entrogastrone, which inhibits gastri