Postparturient haemoglobinuria, Biology

Postparturient haemoglobinuria

It is also known as puerperal haemoglobinuria or nutritional haemoglobinurea and results in intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and anaemia.

Etiology: The disease is caused owing to low phosphorus level in the diet and excessive ingestion of cruciferous plants. Mortality rates may be up to 40%. This disease is found more in crossbred cows than buffaloes. It occurs usually 2-4 weeks after calving. The high producing dairy animals in their third to sixth lactation are commonly affected.

Pathogenesis: Low phosphorus in diet causes hypophosphatemia. Lactation further reduces its level in blood. There is reduction in glycolysis and ATP synthesis in erythrocytes which increases fragility of RBCs and haemoglo­binuria occurs. Copper and selenium also play role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Due to copper deficiency, there is deficiency of superoxide dismutase that helps in converting free radical oxygen into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen and thereby, cells are protected against the harmful effects of free radicals. However, in deficiency of this dismutase enzyme, radical oxygen is available which damage the cells and helps in production of the disease.

Clinical signs: Affected animals show signs of inappetance, weakness, reduction in milk yield and haemoglobinuria. The mucous membranes become pale and body temperature is normal initially followed by subnormal in later stage. They also suffer from dehydration and their faeces becoming dry and firm. Later on jaundice and depraved appetite develop along with dyspnoea and tachycardia. Such animals usually die within few days due to anaemic anoxia.

Diagnosis: The disease is diagnosed by symptoms and confirmed by urine examination which reveals presence of the haemoglobin. Blood analysis reveals low level of phosphorus and RBCs have heinz-bodies. The disease should be differentiated from leptospirosis which has acute fever, red coloured milk, and abortions; bacillary haemoglobinuria has acute fever, hemoglobinuria, dysentry and abdominal pain; babesiosis has history of ticks infestation, acute fever, abortions and blood smear positive for Babesia spp.; chronic copper poisoning has severe jaundice but no fever and anaplasmosis which does not reveal haemoglobinuria, high fever, has history of ticks and blood smear reveals positive result for parasite.

Treatment: In severe cases, transfusion of large amounts of whole blood @ 4-6 liters is recommended. For the replacement of phosphorus, 120 g sodium acid phosphate can be dissolved in 600 ml water and half of it is given by intravenous route, and half by subcutaneous route. Use of 125 g bone meal or dicalcium phosphate given twice daily by oral route is also highly effective. Besides, they should be given haematinic mixture containing copper, iron and cobalt salts by oral route. The animals kept in the areas suspected for having copper deficiency, should be given inorganic copper salts orally or organic copper preparations by parenteral route. The use of ascorbic acid has also been found beneficial for its treatment.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:41:38 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Postparturient haemoglobinuria, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Postparturient haemoglobinuria, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Postparturient haemoglobinuria Discussions

Write discussion on Postparturient haemoglobinuria
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Which of the following terms best describes calcium metals? Check all that apply. Molecule, element, matter, and compound.

give two examples of chemical reactions which are catalysed by enzymes in the course of brewing

What is the estimated percentage (in mass) of water in the human body? Is this percentage expected to be larger in the adult or in the old individual? About 65% of the human in

Explain about the Oral cavity and alimental-y tract? Various functional changes and decline in secretary function occur in the digestive tract with aging. These include: Or

Q. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis? The components of treatment of NKHDC are: 1) control of water loss. 2) control of sugar using insulin. 3) adjust electrolytes li

What are the joints Joints are the place of articulation between two or more bones, or between a bone and a cartilage. Due to the presence of a number of joints, the movement

Q. Show the Pre-Diabetes Conditions? Pre-diabetes is a condition which may occur between normal and diabetes stages. It is important for you to know about this group of people,

What are the antigens and the respective antibodies of the ABO blood group system? The ABO blood system contains the erythrocytic antigens A and B that can be attacked by the a

Explain the Uses of ISP in Infant formulas Infant formulas  Infant formulas, where milk solids have been changed by soy products, are well established commercial products

Vegetable Butters  Fats of this group are derived from the seeds of various tropical trees and are distinguished by their narrow melting range, which is due mainly to the arra