Pneumonia, Biology

Pneumonia

It is inflammation of pulmonary parenchyma, usually accompanied by inflammation of bronchioles, and is characterized by cough, increased respiratory rate and abnormal lung sounds on auscultation.

Etiology: Pneumonia may be classified as (i) lobular pneumonia, (ii) lobar pneumonia, (iii) focal pneumonia, and (iv) interstitial pneumonia.  Pasteurella multocida, P. hemolytica, Mycoplasma sp., Chlamydia sp., Streptococcus sp., Corynebacterium pyogenes, Mycobacterium bovis or M. tuberculosis, lung worm and bovine viral diarrhoea virus are the common causative agents.

Clinical signs: A bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge may or may not be present depending upon the stage of pneumonia. There is rapid and shallow breathing. Bronchopneumonia is accompanied by moist rales and painful cough while interstitial pneumonia is accompanied by dry cough. In acute pneumonia there is increased body temperature. Dyspnoea may be either inspiratory or expiratory type. If there is severe pain it indicates pleuritis. Animal is anorexic. Chronic cases show depression and rough coat.

Diagnosis: Culture and drug sensitivity of nasal swabs gives an indication of bacterial involvement in pneumonia and the drug of choice for the treatment. White blood cell (WBC) count may be slightly elevated with shift to left in bacterial pneumonia. In acute viral pneumonia there is leukopenia and lymphopenia. Fibrinogen level is high in severe pulmonary diseases. X-ray of chest may be useful in the diagnosis.

Treatment: Selection of antibiotic for the treatment depends on the tentative diagnosis and drug sensitivity. Parenterally administered broad-spectrum antibiotic as well as parenteral and oral sulfonamides are effective in treating individual or herd cases. The affected animal should be kept in well ventilated warm room with provision of freshwater.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:04:16 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Pneumonia, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Pneumonia, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Pneumonia Discussions

Write discussion on Pneumonia
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Q. What are the extraembryonic membranes present in vertebrates? The extraembryonic membranes that may be present in vertebrates are the yolk sac, the amnion, the placenta, the

Air Microbes

Open Pulmonary Valvotomy :  Open pulmonary valvotomy by technique of inflow occlusion is done without cardio pulmonary bypass. Surface hypothermia is used and inflow occlusio

Overturn - Thermal stratification The summer or winter stratification is seasonal. Circulation of lake water occurs twice a year, in the spring and autumn (fall) seasons by a

Cardiac surgical intervention has an increasingly important role in the treatment of intracardiac complications of endocarditis. Retrospective data suggest that mortality is unacce

How Age factors Affecting the calcium absorption? Age is another factor which influences the absorption of calcium. Fractional absorption of calcium is highest in infancy i.e.,

Why is it advantageous to have weak hydrogen bonds among complementary bases and strong covalent bonds among phosphate and Deoxyribose groups in a DNA molecule? The hydrogen bo

Explain the Gomez classification? It will be of interest to you to learn that in Mexico, a child specialist named Gomez and his co-workers proposed a classification expressing

What is the cause of the immunodeficiency presented by AIDS patients? The cause of the immunodeficiency shown by AIDS patients is the destruction of CD4 T helper lymphocytes by

What are the archenteron and the blastopore? What is the stage of the embryonic development in which these structures are formed? What are the destinations of the archenteron and o