Peste des petits ruminants, Biology

Peste des petits ruminants

It is also known as goat plague or kata resulting in high fever, diarrhoea and respiratory distress. In India, the disease was reported in the village of Arasur, Tamil Nadu State in 1989, and subsequently the disease was recorded from other parts of the country and is now endemic in goat and sheep.

Etiology: PPR virus is a morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae, closely related to rinderpest and canine distemper viruses. The disease is seen both in sheep and goat and occurs in more severe form in goat than sheep. Kids of 4-12 months of age are more susceptible. The morbidity rates are 75-90% while mortality rates are 70-80%. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is essential for spread of the disease.

Pathogenesis: The virus is excreted in all the excretions and secretions of infected animals. After gaining entry, virus penetrates the retropharyngeal mucous membrane and causes viraemia. Due to this, gastrointestinal, respiratory and lymphoid systems are damaged resulting in diarrhoea and respiratory distress.

Clinical signs: The disease usually occurs in acute form and symptoms appear after 4-7 days. Initially there is high rise of body temperature followed by anorexia, depression, watery ocular and nasal discharge which becomes mucopurulent later on. This discharge becomes catarrhal later on and crusts are formed which occlude the nasal passage. Necrotic areas also develop in some cases on nasal mucosae. On the lips, gums, cheeks, and corners of mouth, mucosal erosions develop and tongue becomes thick with necrotic areas. Conjunctivae of animals are congested and there is profuse catarrhal discharge. After 3-4 days of development of fever, animals show diarrhoea which is profuse and mucoid followed by dysentery. In the later stages, animals show coughing and dyspnoea. Due to secondary bacterial contamination, bronchopneumonia occurs. Animals usually die within one week of onset of diarrhoea.

On postmortem examination of dead animals, erosions and ulcerations of mucosae of digestive tract and buccal cavity are seen. There is haemorrhagic inflammation of abomasum, caecum and colon. Pneumonia, pleuritis and hydrothorax have been reported. The lymphnodes and spleen are enlarged.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by clinical signs and postmortem lesions of dead animals. Blood analysis reveals haemoconcentration, polycythemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytosis. Plasma volume and serum sodium and potassium are progressively declined. Agar gel precipitation, counter immunoelectrophoresis, haemagglutination and ELISA tests may be used for the confirmation of disease.

Treatment: Broad-spectrum antibiotics like gentamycin, erythromycin, neomycin or streptopenicillin may be used to check secondary bacterial infection. Antihistaminics, antipyretic and expectorants are also helpful. In dehydrated animals, dextrose or normal saline should be given intravenously. Infected animals recover quickly if hyperimmune serum is given intravenously @ 5 ml in infected goats.

Control: Live attenuated homologous vaccine against peste des petits ruminants of sheep and goats is produced on a large in India using seed virus developed at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Muktheswar, India. Vero cells between 130-150 passages with six percent foetal calf serum is used for the production of vaccine. The freezedried vaccine is monitored to have a titre of minimum of 105/100 doses. The tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (TCRP) earlier used for the control of PPR had the side effects of abortion in goats and sheep, that has been substituted by homologous PPR vaccine. Proper maintenance of animals hygienically, avoidance of stress, regular deworming and proper nutrition can reduce the susceptibility of the animals to the disease.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:10:59 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Peste des petits ruminants, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Peste des petits ruminants, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Peste des petits ruminants Discussions

Write discussion on Peste des petits ruminants
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Determine the name of Material used for BCC You must be interested to know about type of material you can prepare and some material is available in hospitals and clinics for us

Wet Stigma - Category of Stigma Petunia shows several randomly distributed 2-celled papillae on its surface. In a developing stigma, the epidermis is covered by a continuous,

Would you expect the muscle fibers of the tongue to be striated or smooth? What about the muscle of the diaphragm/ Explain your answer.


Q. Risk Factors for GDM? If any of the following risk factors are present in a woman, she may develop GDM: 1) Presence of obesity. 2) If any family members (parents, brot

Formation of New Membranes Divisions of the egg or blastomeres raise the total surface area of the two daughter cells to be covered via membrane at every cleavage. The parent

What is the typical feature of the epithelia? How different is it from the connective tissue? The typical feature of the epithelium is the absence or almost absence of space a

Associated nerves and vessels The Anterior superior alveolar, Infraorbital, and Posterior superior alveolar nerves and arteries provide both the innervation and blood supply to

Glucose-1-phosphate to Glycogen The conversion  of glucose-1-phosphate  to glycogen  is  through UDPG and glycogen synthase. We shall learn about  this later in section under g

What is a biome? A biome is the prevailing ecosystem constituted by similar abiotic and biotic factors present in one or more regions of the planet.