i) This consists of enlarging the existing for a men ovale by putting a baloon through the defect (baloon septostomy) so that interatrial mixing of blood can occur. This is carried out while doing cardiac catheterisation.
ii) Creating atrial septal defect (blalock-Henion operation)
iii) Pulmonary artery banding to decrease pulmonary hypertension in the presence of an associated ventricular septal defect.
Surgical creation of a ductus arteriosus if pulmonic stenosis and VSD exist. Of the various surgical procedures Beffers operation is believed to offer best results, which consists of partial redirection of venous blood (i.e. venacaval anastomosis) to the left atrium and pulmonary veins to the right atrium.