A useful visual aid for showing the horizontal and vertical structure of an organisation is the organisation chart. An organisation chart is a graphic presentation of organisational structure, indicating span of management, hierarchical and vertical positions, relationships between line and staff positions, flow of authority, responsibility, communication and such others. Lines of authority are usually represented on organisational charts by unbroken lines whereas broken lines indicate staff positions and dotted lines show the staff functions like relationship between statutory committees and the organisation.
Four organisation charts are given below; three represent a large university library, a large public library and a special library respectively. The fourth chart represents a typical small library irrespective of type. The points to be noted in these charts are: