Organic molecules, Biology

Organic Molecules

  • Some organic molecules in life are
    • Carbohydrates and Lipids à C, H and O
    • Proteins à C, H, O, N & sometimes S
    • Nucleic acids à C, H, O, N & P

                     Can also contain traces of Mg and Fe (e.g. in proteins)

  • Functional groups è atoms that tend to react a certain way
    • Contribute to chemical & physical properties of the molecule
    • E.g.

                       Alcohols à hydroxyl group (-OH)

                      Carboxylic Acids à carboxyl group (-COOH)

                      Amino à amine/amide (NH)

                      Sulfhydryl à (-SH)

                      Phosphates à (-OOP=O)

                      Carbonyl à Aldehydes and Ketones (=O)

o   Can participate in redox, acid-base, condensation/dehydration & hydrolysis reactions

  • The oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes into carboxylic acids
    • Important for fatty acids
    • Thiols è form disulfide linkages upon oxidation àimportant in protein synthesis (formation of macromolecules)
  • Carbon
    • Has four valence electrons and can form straight branched chains or rings
    • Provides a backbone for biological molecules
    • C-H are non-polar bonds
    • Link up with atoms to form functional groups
  • Biological macromolecules
    • Large molecules (polymers) made of repeating subunits (monomers)

                     Carbohydrates à glucose subunits (sugars)

                     Proteins à amino acid subunits (enzymes)

                     Lipids à glycerol and fatty acid subunits (triglycerides)

                    Nucleic acids à nucleotide subunits (DNA and RNA)

                 o   Monomer must have at least 1 functional group to form a monomer

                     1 functional group è dimer

 

Posted Date: 8/20/2012 2:20:42 PM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Organic molecules, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Organic molecules, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Organic molecules Discussions

Write discussion on Organic molecules
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Explain about the Pulse vaccination? How many doses of a given vaccine, administered to what people and on what schedule, permit eradication or control of an infectious disease

Why is not Mendel's second law always valid for two or more phenotypical traits of an individual? The Mendel's second law, or the law of the independent assortment, is valid fo

Briefly explain Lichens organism? Lichens are unique organisms consisting of a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. They represent a type of s

write similaritie between the two species?

Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Q. What are the Symptoms of pectic ulcer? Increased gastric tone and painful hunger contraction when stomach is empty. Hunger contraction 1-3 hours after meals is the main com

Define the Calcium Toxicity? Elevated blood calcium can occur in association with high parathyroid hormone, hyper- or hypothyroid conditions, bone metastasis, vitamin D toxicit

Describe two differences among green algae and plants. Algae lack tissue differentiation and have no true roots, leaves and stems. The gametangia of algae are single-celled; th

Explain about the term demand. Demand: Potential customers (consumers, buyers or households) of a good or a service into a market, which normally a demand curve is utiliz

Define Historical example for Dynamical Network? John Tyson constructed a nonlinear differential equation model representing the majority of the network of biochemical pathways