Operculum - Seed Appendages
The term operculum is applied to a plug-like structure formed in the micropylar portion of the seed by proliferation of cells at the tip of the inner integument or the nucellus. An operculum has been observed in seeds of many monocotyledonous families, such as the Commelinaceae, Musaceae, Lemnaceae and Zingiberaceae, and a few dicotyledonous families like Bignoniaceae and Nymphaeaceae.
In Lemna paucicostata, cells at the tip of the inner integument undergo a remarkable expansion after fertilization and form a dome-shaped, stopper- like operculum. Cells of the operculum are thick-walled and contain an orange-red substance. During germination of the embryo the operculum becomes detached from rest of the seed and facilitates emergence of the embryo.