Nursing Care of Common Cold:
Relieve Nasal Congestion
Clean the nasal passage to remove secretions. In infants nasal aspirator can be used while the older children can be helped to blow the nose or by ticking in anterior nares. Administer nasal drops if prescribed, usually Saline drops are sufficient. If necessary 1/4 per cent ephedrine in saline is used to relieve congestion and antihistamines may also be advised. In children care should be taken to avoid putting nasal drops. Cough can be relieved by steam inhalation and humidification of air. Decongestants are used in case of nasal obstruction.
Check temperature frequently and accurately. Paracetamol and/or calcium aspirin in the dose of 10 mg per kg body weight may be administerd as prescribed to relieve fever any myalagia.
Promote Rest and Isolation
Child should be nursed in a separate room in order to prevent spread of infection to others and articles of child should be kept separate. Hand washing should be encouraged. Provide bed rest to child until 24 hours after fever subsides.
Maintain Fluids and Nutrition
Small and frequent feeds and fluids like, water, glucose, juice, and other liquids are offered to these children. For newborns and infant continue breast feeding more frequently.
Give Proper Position
Nurse the child in prone position and change the position frequently to avoid pooling of secretions. Watch for respiratory distress.
Observe for Complication
Observe the child for ear pain, cough, purulent secretions and recurrent rise of temperature.