Monosaccharide sugars, Biology

Monosaccharide Sugar - carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar unit

  • Have an aldehyde or a ketone group and 2-5 alcohol groups depending of the # of carbons

             o    Glucose  aldose
             o    Fructose  ketose

  • Common sugars

             o    5-carbon sugars  have 4 alcohols and one aldehyde/ketone group  pentose
             o    6-carbon sugars  have 6 functional groups  hexose
             o    3-carbon sugars  have 3 functional groups  triose

  • In solution monosaccharides 5-6 carbons long  form more stable ring structures

            o    the C=O group reacts with the -OH group to form an O link
            o    6 carbon chains...
                  Aldose  form 6 member ring
                   Ketose  form 5 member ring
            o    Pentose sugars form 5 member rings

 

                                            1055_Monosaccharide Sugar.png                                                   2484_Monosaccharide Sugar 1.png                                      

 

  • Glucose

            o    Chain structure
                  C3 has the OH on the other side
            o    Alpha α-glucose
                 C1 has the H above the plane of the ring and the OH below the plane
                 Starch and glycogen
            o    Beta β-Glucose
                 C1 has the H below the plane of the ring and the OH above the plane
                  Cellulose and chitan

  • Many hexose structures resemble glucose but have a different orientation of the alcohol group

           o    Mannose has the orientation on C2 switched

 

           o    Galactose has the orientation on C4 switched

 

Posted Date: 8/20/2012 2:33:25 PM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Monosaccharide sugars, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Monosaccharide sugars, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Monosaccharide sugars Discussions

Write discussion on Monosaccharide sugars
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What are infructescences, pseudofruits and parthenocarpic fruits? Infructescences are aggregated fruits created from inflorescences, aggregated flowers. Grape clusters are inst

1. By direct measurement of the activity of the thyroid gland in several patients who had received 131 I for diagnostic purposes, it was observed that the biological elimination h

Contagious ecthyma The contagious ecthyma virus is immunologically distinct from vaccinia, but similar  to the causative agent of pseudo-cow-pox. It belongs to the genus Parapoxvi

Define Body weight as a determinant of nutrient requirements? Requirements are considered to be a function of body weight for individuals who are not overweight. However, for s

Determination of Vitamin A Vitamin A assay is carried out by chemical method. This method is called Carr Price Reaction.   Vitamin A and the carotenoids produce an intense b


What is the Nature of Monosaccharides? Monosaccharides are colourless, crystalline substances which are soluble in water but insoluble in non polar solvents. Monosaccharides ca

Describe about Results of Total Anomalous pulmonary Venous Connection ? Reported hospital mortality varies from 2 to 20 per cent depending on the experience of cardiac surgery

Q. Why can the genetic code be qualified as a "degenerate code"? The genetic code is a degenerate code because there are amino acids codified by more than one type of codon, it

Define Triple Sugar iron - Carbohydrate Utilization Pattern? Triple sugar iron (TSI) agar is used to observe carbohydrate utilization pattern. The medium contains 1% concentr