Monosaccharide derivatives, Biology

MONOSACCHARIDE DERIVATIVES

They are modified monosaccharides.

GLYCOSIDES

  • They are compounds formed by condensation reaction between a sugar and hydroxyl group of another substance which may be a sugar, a sterol, glycerol, methyl alcohol, etc.
  • Streptomycin is a glycoside.
  • Other medicinally important ones are cardiac glycosides.

ALCOHOLIC SUGAR

  • When aldehyde group of monosaccharide is converted into alcohol (OH) group, then it is called alcoholic sugar.
  • Glucose → Sorbitol
  • Mannose → Mannitol
  • Reduction of aldehyde and ketone group converts a sugar into sugar alcohol.
  • Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is sugar acid.
  • Glucouronic acid and iduronic acid are components of chondroitin sulphate, cell wall and gums.

AMINO SUGARS (HEXOSAMINES)

  • When -OH group of second carbon converted into -NH then it is called amino sugar.
  • Glucose → Glucosamine
  • They are generally formed by replacement of hydroxyl group at carbon 2 with amino group (-NH ).
  • Glucosamine is the most common amino sugar that occurs in chitin, fungal wall and hyaluronic acid.
  • Galactosamine is used in synthesis of cartilage.
  • Mannosamine is found in mucoprotein.
  • Amino sugars also occur in some antibiotics.
Posted Date: 10/9/2012 3:29:21 AM | Location : United States






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