a The Monetary Approach to the ER. All else equal, an increase in the interest rate in Canada is associated, in the long run, with higher prices in Canada and an appreciated exchange rate (i.e. lower e2).
b From PPP theory we can conclude that a country with high inflation (relative to its foreign partners) should have an appreciating currency.
c All else equal, a rise in dollar interest rates causes the dollar to appreciate against the euro while a rise in euro interest rates causes the dollar to depreciate against the euro. Today's exchange rate is also altered by changes in its expected future level. If there is a decrease in the expected future level of the dollar/euro rate, for example, then at unchanged interest rates, today's dollar/euro exchange rate will appreciate.