Metabolic processes, Biology

Metabolic Processes

  • Living things are complex and yet, the cell is the basic unit of life
  • New cells result of mitosis cell division
  • DNA controls all cell functions
  • In living organisms there is a balance between anabolic and catabolic processes

             -Anabolic à taking smaller molecules and making them into larger ones
                              E.g. photosynthesis and protein synthesis

             -Catabolic à taking larger molecules and breaking them down into smaller ones

                               E.g. cellular respiration

              -Anabolism + catabolism = metabolism

  • Metabolic processes need to be taking place for an organism to survive

                              E.g. of metabolic processes

                           Photosynthesis, cellular respiration, digestions, dehydration, protein synthesis and leaves changing colours in fall

  • Living things have chemicals reacting together è chemistry drive all life

Chemistry to remember

  • Sugar and acids dissolve well in water due to their polar bonds
  • Carbon is a versatile atom since it can form 4 bonds that are usually very stable
  • Humans lack the enzyme to break down the β - glucose found in cellulose in grass
  • Blanching food denatures the enzyme that would react to air and cause an 'off taste'
  • Matter - has mass and takes up space

Atoms are the smallest unit of matter

o   Electrons, protons and neutrons

o   Protons + neutrons = atomic mass

  • Isotopes
    • Atoms with same # of protons but a different number of neutrons
  • Radioisotopes
    • Isotopes that decay over time into smaller atoms, sub-atomic particles and energy
    • Have a half-life è time it takes for half the mass to decay away
    • Uses à radiometric dating, radioactive tracers, nuclear medicine
    • Radiation à cause mutations, cellular damage and possible death
  • Intramolecular Bonds è bonds within a molecule
    • Ionic (metal-nonmetal)
    • Covalent
  • Electronegativity
    • Measure of an atoms ability to attract a shared electron pair when participating in a covalent bond
    • Atom that has higher En à attract pair better à slightly negative δ-
    • En differences

  0 - 1.7 à non polar/polar à 1.7 - 4.2 à ionic

  • Polarity
    • Depends on En differences and symmetry
  • Intermolecular Bonds è bonds between molecules
    • London Dispersion

                        Weak and based on size of atom/# of electons

                        Affects all molecules

               o   Dipole-Dipole

                     Occurs in polar molecules

               o   H-bonds

                    Strongest bond occurring between H and NOF

  • Water has strong polar bonds
    • H-bonds are very important for they cause...

 Cohesion à water sticks together causing high surface tension

Adhesion à water sticks to other things causing capillary action

  • High heat capacity
  • High vapour pressure

o   Solid water is less dense then liquid

o   Very good solvent

o   Small non-polar molecules (e.g. O2 & CO2) need protein carrier molecules to dissolve

o   Nonpolar = hydrophobic; Polar = hydrophilic

o   Water ionizes very little into H3O and OH

  • Acids and Bases
    • Strong acids ionize completely where as weak ones only ionize a bit
    • The acid donates the proton (H+) and the base accepts the proton

  Conjugate acid-base pairs

  These also act as buffers for the pH in our body

 

Posted Date: 8/20/2012 2:16:50 PM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Metabolic processes, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Metabolic processes, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Metabolic processes Discussions

Write discussion on Metabolic processes
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the temperate forests? In the temperate forest deciduous trees predominate. Mammals are originated in great number, as

If I take a drug that induced the synthesis of CYP 2E1 in my system, would that raise or lower my blood alcohol level after I drink a beer or wine (compared to if I hadn''t taken t

Explain Management strategies for genetically modified crops? Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be toxic to insect pests are now common in US agriculture. Make

In detail describe the structure and function of the heart and blood flow. Include the conduction system and blood vessels. Make your response specific to your audience who are a g

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL - 1 .       EFFECT ON NERVOUS SYSTEM - Alcohol has an anesthetic effect on nervous system. It affects orientation, alertness, coordination, judgement

To verify the effect of intra-specific competition on the growth of saplings of Eucalyptus dives, an experiment was designed in which two sets of pots were used. In the first set o

Define Hydroxybenzoic acid and Hydroxycinnamic acid? Hydroxybenzoic acid: e.g. ellagic and gallic acids, which are hydrolyzable tannins, present in berries and nuts. Hydroxy

TYPES OF NURSING UNITS: The design of nursing unit should maximize the function of the unit by following its task. The design of nursing unit has also under gone a radical cha

Q. What si Adenosine or Dipyridamole Thallium Scan? These studies are newer modalities that allow studying perfusion abnormalities to the myocardium when the patient cannot per

What are plankton, benthos and nekton? Plankton, benthos and nekton are the three groups into which aquatic living beings may be divided. The plankton is formed by algae and