Metabolic processes, Biology

Metabolic Processes

  • Living things are complex and yet, the cell is the basic unit of life
  • New cells result of mitosis cell division
  • DNA controls all cell functions
  • In living organisms there is a balance between anabolic and catabolic processes

             -Anabolic à taking smaller molecules and making them into larger ones
                              E.g. photosynthesis and protein synthesis

             -Catabolic à taking larger molecules and breaking them down into smaller ones

                               E.g. cellular respiration

              -Anabolism + catabolism = metabolism

  • Metabolic processes need to be taking place for an organism to survive

                              E.g. of metabolic processes

                           Photosynthesis, cellular respiration, digestions, dehydration, protein synthesis and leaves changing colours in fall

  • Living things have chemicals reacting together è chemistry drive all life

Chemistry to remember

  • Sugar and acids dissolve well in water due to their polar bonds
  • Carbon is a versatile atom since it can form 4 bonds that are usually very stable
  • Humans lack the enzyme to break down the β - glucose found in cellulose in grass
  • Blanching food denatures the enzyme that would react to air and cause an 'off taste'
  • Matter - has mass and takes up space

Atoms are the smallest unit of matter

o   Electrons, protons and neutrons

o   Protons + neutrons = atomic mass

  • Isotopes
    • Atoms with same # of protons but a different number of neutrons
  • Radioisotopes
    • Isotopes that decay over time into smaller atoms, sub-atomic particles and energy
    • Have a half-life è time it takes for half the mass to decay away
    • Uses à radiometric dating, radioactive tracers, nuclear medicine
    • Radiation à cause mutations, cellular damage and possible death
  • Intramolecular Bonds è bonds within a molecule
    • Ionic (metal-nonmetal)
    • Covalent
  • Electronegativity
    • Measure of an atoms ability to attract a shared electron pair when participating in a covalent bond
    • Atom that has higher En à attract pair better à slightly negative δ-
    • En differences

  0 - 1.7 à non polar/polar à 1.7 - 4.2 à ionic

  • Polarity
    • Depends on En differences and symmetry
  • Intermolecular Bonds è bonds between molecules
    • London Dispersion

                        Weak and based on size of atom/# of electons

                        Affects all molecules

               o   Dipole-Dipole

                     Occurs in polar molecules

               o   H-bonds

                    Strongest bond occurring between H and NOF

  • Water has strong polar bonds
    • H-bonds are very important for they cause...

 Cohesion à water sticks together causing high surface tension

Adhesion à water sticks to other things causing capillary action

  • High heat capacity
  • High vapour pressure

o   Solid water is less dense then liquid

o   Very good solvent

o   Small non-polar molecules (e.g. O2 & CO2) need protein carrier molecules to dissolve

o   Nonpolar = hydrophobic; Polar = hydrophilic

o   Water ionizes very little into H3O and OH

  • Acids and Bases
    • Strong acids ionize completely where as weak ones only ionize a bit
    • The acid donates the proton (H+) and the base accepts the proton

  Conjugate acid-base pairs

  These also act as buffers for the pH in our body

 

Posted Date: 8/20/2012 2:16:50 PM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Metabolic processes, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Metabolic processes, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Metabolic processes Discussions

Write discussion on Metabolic processes
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
what is the warmest and coldest parts of the boy

You have a 1M KCl stock solution and a 85 mg/ml sulphuric acid stock solution. How will you make a 200 ml single solution containing 20mM KCl and 18 mg/ml sulphuric acid?

Explain about the Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a neuromuscular disorder in which transient seizures recur due to an abnormal brain activity. The brain, through all orderly electric ex

Q. What is myoglobin? What is the function of this molecule in the muscle tissue? Myoglobin is a present in muscle pigment and fibers similar to hemoglobin. Myoglobin has a gre

BIOLOGY - A SCIENCE OF EXCEPTION - Some common examples to prove it are - 1.       Embryos of dicot plants have 2 cotyledons but in cuscuta (Dodder plant or amer bel or Aka

Describe Schizocoelus and its role. One of two ways that a body cavity forms within mesoderm. (The other is enterocoelic pouching.) Block of mesoderm splits apart to create the

What is the meaning of Cardiovascular System ? The cardiovascular system takes care of the distribution of gases, nutrients, hormones, immune elements, and the removal of waste

HIV-Infected patients Because TB therapy is complicated by co-infection with HIV, testing for HIV infection is recommended for all patients with active tuberculosis. To minimiz

Explain in detail about the optic nerve The optic nerve contains more than one million axons that initiate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. This structure originatcs a

Why can the genetic code be qualified as a "degenerate code"? The genetic code is a degenerate code because there are amino acids codified by more than one type of codon. It is