Procedures and methods of the experiments
A). In order to measure the true RMS values of the currents and voltages, students used the true RMS multimeter. It requires two probes, which were already inserted in the multimeter, one was black and one was red probe. The black probe was always inserted in the COM knobe of the multimeter and the red probe was changed according to the measuring characteristics either the current or the voltages.
B). Digital multimeter, it was used to measure the values of the components including the currents, voltages, resistances, capacitances and junction diodes forward voltages. Similarly it also has two probes, black and red, black probe is inserted in the similar way in COM port and the red port is used for measuring purpose. We measure the different values of the components by selecting the selector at the desired location and touch the probes to the component under test. For example, in order to measure the resistance, the selector should be at the position of ohm, similar for capacitance, the selector direction should be towards the CAP and so on.
However, the basic laws are the same what the students have studied in the basic electrical course. For example, for measuring the resistance or currents, Ohm's law is to be implemented and the basic equation can be given as follows
Current = voltage/resistance, I=V/R,iR1=VR1/R1
C).Signal generator (SG) is used to generate the signal with different frequency ranges from 10Hz to MHz. It can generate sine as well as square wave with 5V rms (sine) value to 10V (square) peak-to-peak value. Students perform this operation using the main selection knobes, i.e., either the square wave output or the sine wave output. In the similar fashion as was the multimeter, students can use two probes to take the input from the signal generator and giving the input to the desired circuit or can be measured the value using the multimeter.
D). Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) is very important device used to measure and see the shape of the waveform generated either by signal generator or coming from the component of the circuit. It also has very sensitive probes, which are used to do the measurement. The advantage of this is also the results can be printed with all the readings and shape of the waveform and can be used to publish.The oscilloscope measured voltages versus time.
The working principle of the oscilloscope is to converting the voltage between the terminals into the digital data using the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which allows the data to be stored into the memory and displayed on the screen. It has two axis, vertical and horizontal. Amplitude of the signal was measured in volts per division using the vertical axis and time scale in time units per division was measured using the horizontal axis.The other important feature of the oscilloscope is to represent the number of channel to be displayed.