Measurements of the level of pollution, Biology

Measurements of the level of pollution
There are many  factor for finding  the level of pollution in the waste waters that generally find out the quantity of organic matter suspended and/or mix in the water, and the quantity of important inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen  present. The important measurements are: (i )ammoniac nitrogen content
 (ii) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, (iii) biological indicators (iv) chemical oxygen demand (COD),
 (v) phosphate content and (vi)suspended solids.

The procedure of waste water treatment

After the level of pollutants in waste water is find out,  following 5 stages are applying for water treatment: (i) preliminary treatment, (ii) primary treatment, (iii) secondary treatment, (iv) tertiary treatment, and finally (v) sludge treatment. The first four stages are commonly apply for  both aerobic and anaerobic procedure where  sludge treatment is mainly for anaerobic.

Aerobic reactors or digesters

Biological treatment of settled sewage (sewage that has undergone primary treatment) can be depend on a (i) fixed film digester or (ii) a dispersed growth digester under aerobic conditions.

(i) Fixed film digesters: In these digesters, the biological factors or micro-organisms are present in the form of a film on large discs or filter particles. There are basically two type of: (i) trickling filter digesters and (ii) rotating biological contactors.

(ii) Dispersed growth digesters: In this type of processes, the microbial population is spread throughout the sewage being treated. The activated sludge process is a example of this; it uses a huge aerated vessel for a big scale oxidation of liquid wastes. The micro-organisms are spread as flocs throughout the waste water being treated. Waste water constantly flows into the pot and treated water flows out at a predefined speed to obtain optimal digestion of the dissolved organics. With the treated water, the microbial flocs also flow out. The water that is treated is carried into ponds with huge surface area from where it flows out at very little speed. As a outcome, the suspended solids including the microbial flocs settle down; the sediment is called activated sludge as it contains microbes for aerobic digestion. A part of the activated sludge is continually returned to the digester pot to restore the microbial population that is lost due to washout; the remaining portion of sludge is disposed off.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 12:58:23 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Measurements of the level of pollution, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Measurements of the level of pollution, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Measurements of the level of pollution Discussions

Write discussion on Measurements of the level of pollution
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
List out Points about the Traditional Food Preservation? 1. The traditional food preservation methods like drying, pickling, salting, smoking, canning and freezing have been wi

Factors affects Oxygen Dissociation Curve -Organic Phosphate The presence of organic phosphates in the red blood cells helps to explain many peculiarities of the oxygen dissoc

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) Infectious laryngotracheities, caused by fowl Gallid Herpesvirus 1 belonging to the family Herpesviridae, is a quickly spreading acute res

Q. What do you mean by Insect control? The insects can breed and hide in garbage and other places where there is availability of waste materials. The cockroach lives and breed

Q. Define Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose? Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): A patient can monitor the glucose level at home by self using the glucometer for checking t

Post-parturient haemoglobinuria (pph) in cattle and buffaloes The post-parturient haemoglobinuria (PPH) is an acute disease of high yielding buffaloes and cows. The disease oc

Indicating the name and respective ploidy of each involved cell how can the formation of sperm cells from germ cells be described? The formation of sperm cells, or spermatogene

Explain the Management Strategies for Adults with Congenital Heart Disease ? The goals for management of congenital heal disease in adults are improving upon the natural histo

Explain Trifluridine  (Viroptic)  Trifluridine is a nucleoside analog active against herpes viruses, including acyclovir-resistant strains. Marketed in an ophthalmic preparatio

Explain the Concept of Menu Planning? You have learnt from the previous units that our body's many functions, be it physical activity, mental exercise, growth (in the case of c