Measurements of the level of pollution, Biology

Measurements of the level of pollution
There are many  factor for finding  the level of pollution in the waste waters that generally find out the quantity of organic matter suspended and/or mix in the water, and the quantity of important inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen  present. The important measurements are: (i )ammoniac nitrogen content
 (ii) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, (iii) biological indicators (iv) chemical oxygen demand (COD),
 (v) phosphate content and (vi)suspended solids.

The procedure of waste water treatment

After the level of pollutants in waste water is find out,  following 5 stages are applying for water treatment: (i) preliminary treatment, (ii) primary treatment, (iii) secondary treatment, (iv) tertiary treatment, and finally (v) sludge treatment. The first four stages are commonly apply for  both aerobic and anaerobic procedure where  sludge treatment is mainly for anaerobic.

Aerobic reactors or digesters

Biological treatment of settled sewage (sewage that has undergone primary treatment) can be depend on a (i) fixed film digester or (ii) a dispersed growth digester under aerobic conditions.

(i) Fixed film digesters: In these digesters, the biological factors or micro-organisms are present in the form of a film on large discs or filter particles. There are basically two type of: (i) trickling filter digesters and (ii) rotating biological contactors.

(ii) Dispersed growth digesters: In this type of processes, the microbial population is spread throughout the sewage being treated. The activated sludge process is a example of this; it uses a huge aerated vessel for a big scale oxidation of liquid wastes. The micro-organisms are spread as flocs throughout the waste water being treated. Waste water constantly flows into the pot and treated water flows out at a predefined speed to obtain optimal digestion of the dissolved organics. With the treated water, the microbial flocs also flow out. The water that is treated is carried into ponds with huge surface area from where it flows out at very little speed. As a outcome, the suspended solids including the microbial flocs settle down; the sediment is called activated sludge as it contains microbes for aerobic digestion. A part of the activated sludge is continually returned to the digester pot to restore the microbial population that is lost due to washout; the remaining portion of sludge is disposed off.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 12:58:23 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Measurements of the level of pollution, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Measurements of the level of pollution, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Measurements of the level of pollution Discussions

Write discussion on Measurements of the level of pollution
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Q. Counselling Elderly Diabetics? The rising trend of diabetes in the elderly population is a challenge for health care providers. The problems which make the diabetes treatmen

1. Compute the mean energy per nuclear disintegration, A, for 99m TC if 2.0 x 10 9 Bq of this isotope is injected into a patient. Assume that one-half of the administered dose is

Explain the Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia? Oral iron is the preferred method of treatment of IDA. The dosage is decided depending on the severity of the condition. Gener

Explain the Principle of Development The final guiding principle is that assessment involves the measure of change, or development, across multiple levels of analysis. Developm

Hydrophilic and some lipophilic hormones bind to cell surface receptors. These are necessary  membrane  proteins  located  in the plasma  membrane  which  bind  the  signaling  mol

what is the bioindicator of water pollution.

Differentiate between neuropsychologists and neurologists Cooperation among neuroraudiologists, neurologists, and neuropsychologists has already led to the accomplishment of se

What are muscle tissues? How is the function of this tissue related to the typical characteristics of its cells? Muscle tissues are tissues made of cells able to perform contr

Q. Physical Signs of aortic regurgitation? Chronic severe aortic regurgitation is characterized by wide pulse pressure and multiple peripheral signs it produces. Sharp rapid up

List three important discoveries that resulted from the Human Genome Project. Answers should contain three of the following: Only about 2 percent of the human genome encodes p