Measurements of the level of pollution, Biology

Measurements of the level of pollution
There are many  factor for finding  the level of pollution in the waste waters that generally find out the quantity of organic matter suspended and/or mix in the water, and the quantity of important inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen  present. The important measurements are: (i )ammoniac nitrogen content
 (ii) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, (iii) biological indicators (iv) chemical oxygen demand (COD),
 (v) phosphate content and (vi)suspended solids.

The procedure of waste water treatment

After the level of pollutants in waste water is find out,  following 5 stages are applying for water treatment: (i) preliminary treatment, (ii) primary treatment, (iii) secondary treatment, (iv) tertiary treatment, and finally (v) sludge treatment. The first four stages are commonly apply for  both aerobic and anaerobic procedure where  sludge treatment is mainly for anaerobic.

Aerobic reactors or digesters

Biological treatment of settled sewage (sewage that has undergone primary treatment) can be depend on a (i) fixed film digester or (ii) a dispersed growth digester under aerobic conditions.

(i) Fixed film digesters: In these digesters, the biological factors or micro-organisms are present in the form of a film on large discs or filter particles. There are basically two type of: (i) trickling filter digesters and (ii) rotating biological contactors.

(ii) Dispersed growth digesters: In this type of processes, the microbial population is spread throughout the sewage being treated. The activated sludge process is a example of this; it uses a huge aerated vessel for a big scale oxidation of liquid wastes. The micro-organisms are spread as flocs throughout the waste water being treated. Waste water constantly flows into the pot and treated water flows out at a predefined speed to obtain optimal digestion of the dissolved organics. With the treated water, the microbial flocs also flow out. The water that is treated is carried into ponds with huge surface area from where it flows out at very little speed. As a outcome, the suspended solids including the microbial flocs settle down; the sediment is called activated sludge as it contains microbes for aerobic digestion. A part of the activated sludge is continually returned to the digester pot to restore the microbial population that is lost due to washout; the remaining portion of sludge is disposed off.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 12:58:23 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Measurements of the level of pollution, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Measurements of the level of pollution, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Measurements of the level of pollution Discussions

Write discussion on Measurements of the level of pollution
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Amniocentesis is a way of prenatal testing in which the amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the uterus by the help of a needle. The fluid and the fetal cells it contains are analyzed

What are the causes of obesity - Etiology? However simple the question may sound, the answer to it is not all that simple. We cannot deny that excess weight results from positi

S p e c i a l Uses Biogas Biogas is an important renewable energy resource for rural areas. Generation of bio-gas from dung and urine is a very simple and cost-effective

Q. Treatment of congestive cardiac failure? A judicious and careful co-ordination between oxygen support, drug therapy and nutrient intake can help in alleviating majority of t

EPIBOLY - The epibolic movements occur only in the prospective ectodermal blastomeres. In the blastula of frog, migration and rearrangement of microceres over megameres i

Based on the information given in each description, determine if the transporter is likely a channel or a carrier. This transporter shows increasing rate of transport with increasi

Problems with untreated/ammoniated crop residues Besides the low energy and protein contents, crop residues generally contain low content of minerals such as Calcium, Phosphor

What is the constitutional unit of proteins? The constitutional units of proteins are the amino acids. Protein Structure Review - a) Image Diversity b) amino acid stru

The initial stage of packaging have the binding of the chromosomal DNA to histones.  Whole, in chromosomes the ratio of the DNA to histones on a weight basis is around 1:1. There a

Define Nutritional Demands of Sports and Dietary Recommendations? There is a strong relationship between nutritional status and physical training. Whether it is to maintain hea