Measurements of the level of pollution, Biology

Measurements of the level of pollution
There are many  factor for finding  the level of pollution in the waste waters that generally find out the quantity of organic matter suspended and/or mix in the water, and the quantity of important inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen  present. The important measurements are: (i )ammoniac nitrogen content
 (ii) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, (iii) biological indicators (iv) chemical oxygen demand (COD),
 (v) phosphate content and (vi)suspended solids.

The procedure of waste water treatment

After the level of pollutants in waste water is find out,  following 5 stages are applying for water treatment: (i) preliminary treatment, (ii) primary treatment, (iii) secondary treatment, (iv) tertiary treatment, and finally (v) sludge treatment. The first four stages are commonly apply for  both aerobic and anaerobic procedure where  sludge treatment is mainly for anaerobic.

Aerobic reactors or digesters

Biological treatment of settled sewage (sewage that has undergone primary treatment) can be depend on a (i) fixed film digester or (ii) a dispersed growth digester under aerobic conditions.

(i) Fixed film digesters: In these digesters, the biological factors or micro-organisms are present in the form of a film on large discs or filter particles. There are basically two type of: (i) trickling filter digesters and (ii) rotating biological contactors.

(ii) Dispersed growth digesters: In this type of processes, the microbial population is spread throughout the sewage being treated. The activated sludge process is a example of this; it uses a huge aerated vessel for a big scale oxidation of liquid wastes. The micro-organisms are spread as flocs throughout the waste water being treated. Waste water constantly flows into the pot and treated water flows out at a predefined speed to obtain optimal digestion of the dissolved organics. With the treated water, the microbial flocs also flow out. The water that is treated is carried into ponds with huge surface area from where it flows out at very little speed. As a outcome, the suspended solids including the microbial flocs settle down; the sediment is called activated sludge as it contains microbes for aerobic digestion. A part of the activated sludge is continually returned to the digester pot to restore the microbial population that is lost due to washout; the remaining portion of sludge is disposed off.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 12:58:23 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Measurements of the level of pollution, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Measurements of the level of pollution, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Measurements of the level of pollution Discussions

Write discussion on Measurements of the level of pollution
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
List the benefits of LSM. Life style modification helps in the following ways: - Reduction of weight - Good sugar control - Good blood pressure control - Reduction

Explain Intensity of heart sound? Intensity of S 1, particularly M 1 depends on the position of the bellies of mitral leafets when the LV begins to contract since S 1 is loudes

Q. What is the significance of water for enzymatic activity? Enzymes, Biological catalysts, depend on water to reach their substrates and bind to them. There is no enzymatic ac

Define Interactions between Volatile Substances and Proteins? Flavour binding may involve adsorption at the surface of food or penetration to the food interiority by diffusion

Limitations of Computed Tomograpy Scan  This technology is costly  Increased amount for radiation


Open Pulmonary Valvotonzy, I nfundibular Resection and Trans Annular Patch :  The pulmonary annulus may be narrow based on pre-operative investigations and on measurement

Wastes are classified into following categories: 1.      Biodegradable wastes: The waste materials that can be degraded by micro-organisms are called biodegradable wastes. Th

Q. What are the "chiasms" of homologous chromosomes observe in prophase I? Chiasms are intersections of two tracts in the form of X, The chiasms seen in prophase I are chromoso

What is Rationale for Menu Planning? 'Menu', as we all know, is nothing but a list of dishes planned for preparation, and forms the very core of all activities in the food serv