Measurements of the level of pollution, Biology

Measurements of the level of pollution
There are many  factor for finding  the level of pollution in the waste waters that generally find out the quantity of organic matter suspended and/or mix in the water, and the quantity of important inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen  present. The important measurements are: (i )ammoniac nitrogen content
 (ii) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, (iii) biological indicators (iv) chemical oxygen demand (COD),
 (v) phosphate content and (vi)suspended solids.

The procedure of waste water treatment

After the level of pollutants in waste water is find out,  following 5 stages are applying for water treatment: (i) preliminary treatment, (ii) primary treatment, (iii) secondary treatment, (iv) tertiary treatment, and finally (v) sludge treatment. The first four stages are commonly apply for  both aerobic and anaerobic procedure where  sludge treatment is mainly for anaerobic.

Aerobic reactors or digesters

Biological treatment of settled sewage (sewage that has undergone primary treatment) can be depend on a (i) fixed film digester or (ii) a dispersed growth digester under aerobic conditions.

(i) Fixed film digesters: In these digesters, the biological factors or micro-organisms are present in the form of a film on large discs or filter particles. There are basically two type of: (i) trickling filter digesters and (ii) rotating biological contactors.

(ii) Dispersed growth digesters: In this type of processes, the microbial population is spread throughout the sewage being treated. The activated sludge process is a example of this; it uses a huge aerated vessel for a big scale oxidation of liquid wastes. The micro-organisms are spread as flocs throughout the waste water being treated. Waste water constantly flows into the pot and treated water flows out at a predefined speed to obtain optimal digestion of the dissolved organics. With the treated water, the microbial flocs also flow out. The water that is treated is carried into ponds with huge surface area from where it flows out at very little speed. As a outcome, the suspended solids including the microbial flocs settle down; the sediment is called activated sludge as it contains microbes for aerobic digestion. A part of the activated sludge is continually returned to the digester pot to restore the microbial population that is lost due to washout; the remaining portion of sludge is disposed off.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 12:58:23 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Measurements of the level of pollution, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Measurements of the level of pollution, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Measurements of the level of pollution Discussions

Write discussion on Measurements of the level of pollution
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
All of the electron carrier in the electron transport chain interact according to their redox potentials.  Every time whereas an electron transfers occurs, the accepting carrier ha

What is test battery A series of tests (called a test battery) will be given. One widely used battery is Halstead Reitan, which includes measures of verbal and nonverbal intell


how the blood is circulated with the help of heart

What is the Determination of vitamin B 1 Vitamin B 1 is determined by chemical method and microbiological assay. In the chemical method, vitamin B 1 is oxidized in alkaline

EYELID S - 3 in number. Dermis is thinnest in it. Upper and lower eye lid with eye lashes. Upper eye lid is more motile In reptiles lower eye lid is more motile. In cycl

Modern Theory Naturalistic theory: According to this theory Life originated upon our earth spontaneously from nonliving matter. But there are two significant points in this r

A 37-year old woman is admitted to the hospital after complaining of chest pains. She admits to having had severe headaches for several days prior to seeking medical help. She is a

Q. What are some antibiotics used against fungi? The systemic or topical azoles (like fluconazole, itraconazole and others), amphotericin B, the echinocandins (caspofungin, mic

discuss the merits nd demerits of five kingdom classification.