Male reproductive disorders due to infections
Septicemic infections have a greater affinity for vesicular glands than other regions of the reproductive tract viz. prostate, ampullae, epididymis and testis. However, infection in one or more of these regions is not uncommon. Some pathogenic micro- organisms have a special affinity for the gonads and accesoory glands (primary pathogens) such as Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, chlamydiae, Mycoplasma and ureaplasma, and some herpes viruses. Among the facultative secondary pathogens, Corynebacterium pyogenes bovis is the most important. Although eradication of the highly infectious diseases viz. brucellosis and tuberculosis has been quite successful, yet cases do surface and their eradication is not complete. The damage to the reproductive organs and hence loss of fertility due to infections varies with the nature of the infecting micro-organism. An acute orchitis causes a direct damage to the spermatogenic epithelium even though the interstitial cells remain unaffected. The systemic overheating due to raised body temperature on account of fever coupled with release of toxins by the micro-organisms will result in damage to the testicular tubules finally leading to testicular degeneration. Chronic situations of orchitis, periorchitis and adhesions often result in spermatogenic tubules being replaced by fibrous connective tissue. Inflammation of epididymis, vesicular glands, ampullae not only hamper maturation and sperm transport but the resulting development of lesions is extremely painful and there is mixture of pus cells and bacteria with semen at the time of ejaculation. Due to pain the bull will also refuse to mount. Unfortunately,bulls suffering from these infections do not respond well to antibiotic treatment with surgical removal of the affected parts of bulls of great breeding value remaining the only option.