Loss Reduction and Efficiency Improvement of Electrical Energy
1. There are inherent losses in Transmission and Distribution of electrical energy from Generating stations to the ultimate consumer. The energy losses occurring in the Transmission and Distribution system are called as T&D losses. Transmission and distribution losses are the difference among units injected within the system and the units billed to the ultimate consumer. The transmission and distribution losses occur on account of technical and commercial purpose. The losses occurring on account of technical factors are known as technical losses. The losses occurring on account of non-technical factors or commercial factors are called as commercial losses. T&D losses occur at various places in the distribution system.
2. Aggregate Technical and Commercial losses are the sum total of technical losses, commercial losses and loss because of non-realisation of total billed units. It is the difference among units injected within the system and the units for that the payment is collected (units realised).
3. The main factors in which contribute to high technical losses are low investments in distribution system, large-scale rural electrification, ad-hoc expansion of the system, too several transformation stages, low power factor, low quality of equipment, poor construction and inadequate maintenance of equipment, improper load management and Distribution Transformers not situated at load centres.
4. The factors contributing to high commercial losses are theft/pilferage through existing consumer, illegal connection from distribution line by non - customers, incorrect estimation of energy consumption within respect of unmetered connections, meter reading errors, defective metering, tardy billing and poor revenue collection and lack of accountability.
5.The major issue in Sub-transmission and Distribution systems or rather the issue confronting the power sector as an overall, is the reduction of aggregate technical and commercial losses to acceptable minimum levels. The strategy for improvement should, therefore, be aimed at rectifying these deficiencies to ensure that the ST&D systems operate at optimum stages of technical, commercial and financial efficiency.