Likert scales is often used in the studies of attitudes in which the raw scores are based on the graded alternative responses to each of a series of queries. For instance, the subject might be asked to indicate his/her degree of agreement with each of the series of statements relevant to the attitude. The number is attached to each possible response, for example
1:strongly approve; 2:approve; 3:undecided; 4:disapprove; 5:strongly disapprove; and the total of these used as the compo- site score. A generally used Likert-type scale in the medicine is the Apgar score used to appraise status of the newborn infants. This is the total of the points (0,1 or 2) allotted for each of the ?ve items:
* heart rate (is over 100 beats per minute 2 points, slower 1 point, no beat 0);
* the respiratory effort;
* the muscle tone;
* the response to simulation by the catheter in the nostril;
*the colour of skin.