All solar cells require a light absorbing material contained within the cell structure to absorb photons and generate electrons via the photo voltaic effect. The materials used in solar cells tend to have property of preferentially absorbing the wave lengths of solar lights that reach the earth surface. However some solar cells are optimized for light absorption the wave length of solar beyond earth’s atmosphere as well as. Light absorbing material can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanism. Many currently available solar cells are configured as bulk material that ARE subsequently cut into wafers and treated in a “top-down” method of method of synthesis silicon being the most prevalent bulk material. Other materials are configured as thin films inorganic layers, organic dyes, and organic polymers that are deposited on supporting substances. While a third group is used as quantum dots electron-confined neon particles embedded in a supporting matrix in a “bottom-up” approach.