Leptospirosis, Biology

Leptospirosis

It is zoonotic disease characterized by interstitial nephritis, haemolytic anaemia and abortions.

Etiology: The disease is caused by Leptospira interrogans. Severe form of disease occurs in calves and lambs whereas adults show less severe form. In dairy animals, abortion occurs in about 30% of affected animals.

Pathogenesis: The organisms reach liver from the intestinal tract and multiply there. The organisms produce haemolysin which causes intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria, jaundice and escape of blood in to milk. Abortions occur in later stage of pregnancy when organisms enter into placenta.

Clinical signs: It occurs in acute, subacute or chronic form in dairy animals. In acute form, animals have fever, anorexia, acute haemolytic anaemia, haemoglo­binuria, jaundice, petechial haemorrhages on mucosae, dyspnoea, abortions and blood in milk.

The pregnant animals usually abort. In human beings, fever, haemoglobinuria, jaundice and pale mucous membranes are common symptoms.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and confirmed by isolation of organisms from blood, kidney, pleural fluid of aborted foetus, or urine. These materials can be inoculated to hamsters, which die within 2 days in positive cases. Serological tests like agglutination and fluorescent antibody tests can also be used for its confirmation. The disease is to be differentiated from nutritional haemoglobinuria (PPH). The later is associated with no rise in body temperature; milk is normal and is seen mostly 4-6 weeks before and after parturition. In bacillary haemoglobinuria, abortions are absent and milk is normal. Anaplasmosis does not reveal haemoglobinuria while animals have history of tick infestation. In babesiosis, milk is normal and animals have history of tick infestation like anaplasmosis. In chronic copper poisoning, body temperature and milk remain normal.

Treatment: The cases should be treated before there is damage of liver or kidney. For cows, 10-15 mg streptomycin can be given per kg body weight intramuscularly twice daily for 3-4 days. If organisms are present in urine, it is to be given in double doses. Tetracyclines @ 2-5 mg/kg body weight BID for 4 days are also effective. As supportive therapy, liver tonics and haematinics should be prescribed for early recovery. If animals are very anaemic, 6-8 liter of blood can be transfused to save life.

Control: Control of leptospirosis is difficult owing to involvement of wild animals and rodents in the disease transmission. Vaccines are available against this disease for dogs. But vaccine against cows or buffaloes or other farm animals is not available in India.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:46:16 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Leptospirosis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Leptospirosis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Leptospirosis Discussions

Write discussion on Leptospirosis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
State the process of metabotropic receptors Consider a system that contains two neurons and one cardiac SA node cell in a culture dish bathed in normal physiological saline.  A

Augmentation Therapy: The functional gene is introduced in addition to the defective gene endogeneous to the cell(s) in this somatic cell gene therapy,  i.e. the improved  cell

What is the energy efficiency of photosynthesis? a) What area is occupied by each molecule? b) Calculate the molecular absorption cross section in units of A 2   A cr

Define Itraconazole Itraconazole is FDA-approved for treatment of blastomycosis, histoplasmosis (non-meningeal) and aspergillosis in patients who are intolerant of or refractor

Q. How is reproduction done in beings of the class Reptilia? These beings reproduce sexually through internal fecundation by means of copulation between female and male individ

Explain about the Transcellular Route - Calcium? Transcellular Route: It operates primarily in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. It is stimulated when Ca ingestion is lower re

What are some examples of the control and informative function of organic molecules? Based on genetic information, organic molecules control the whole work of the cell. The nuc

ROLE OF FAT OR LIPIDS - Made up of fatty acids & glycerol. Linked by ester bond. Maximum quantity of energy is librated. Helpful in temperature regulation. As stored f

Like  DNA RNA  is  a  long  polymer  having  of  nucleotides joined by 3'5' phosphodiester  bonds. Furthermore, there are some differences: ?   The bases in RNA are adenine abbr

diagram of phyllum protozoa