Lead, Biology

Lead

It is common cause of poisoning in cattle. Lead poisoning in other species is limited by reduced accessibility, more selective eating habits, or lower susceptibility. In cattle, many cases are associated with seeding and harvesting activities when used oil and battery disposal from machinery is handled improperly. Other sources of lead include paint, linoleum, grease, lead weights, lead shot, and contaminated foliage growing near smelters or along roadsides. Lead poisoning is also encountered in urban environments, and  old houses painted with lead-based paint has been associated with lead poisoning in small animals. After consumption, small portion of lead is absorbed and it is excreted through bile, urine and milk. It causes encephalopathy, gastroenteritis and degeneration of peripheral nerves.

In acute poisoning, animals reveal muscle tremors, champing of jaw, salivation, blindness, muscular twitching, convulsion, hyperasthesia and death. In chronic cases, head pressing, long standing posture, circling, excitement, blindness and mania, grinding of teeth, ruminal stasis, gastroenteritis and abdominal pain are noticed. Animals die as a result of respiratory failure during convulsions. It is diagnosed by clinical signs or by measuring the level of lead in blood and also detected indirectly by measuring delta aminolevulinic acid which decreases in blood in lead toxicity.

Lead levels in various tissues may be useful to evaluate excessive accumulation and to reflect the level or duration of exposure, severity, and prognosis and the success of treatment. Concentrations of lead in the blood at 0.35 ppm, liver at 10 ppm, or kidney cortex at 10 ppm are consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning in most species.

The animals can be treated with calcium versenate (calcium EDTA) given @ 100-200 mg/kg body weight intravenously thrice daily for 3-4 days. Thiamine given @ 2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously also helps in its treatment. Simultaneous use of Ca EDTA and vitamin B has synergistic effect. Use of 400-600 g magnesium sulphate orally precipitates lead.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:51:44 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Lead, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Lead, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Lead Discussions

Write discussion on Lead
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
explane the role of nitrogenase enzyme

Explain the Acid Fast Staining? Acid fast staining is a type of differential staining used for identification of certain bacteria, e.g. Mycobacteria which cannot be stained rea

Vascular Preoperative administration of a cephalosporin decreases the incidence of postoperative surgical site infection after arterial reconstructive surgery on the abdominal

Define Vitamins requirement to avoid underweight problem? Vitamins and Minerals: If the diet provides good amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables, vitamin or mineral supplement

Which of the following best defines why the two DNA polymerase proteins that are held by the sliding clamp are oriented in opposite directions? A. The efficiency of replication


Explain Milling extraction rate The chemical composition of the flour depends on the milling extraction rate.  Increasing the rate of flour extraction decreases the proportion

Mesophytes These plants grow in moist habitats and well-aerated soils. They prefer soil and air of moderate humidity but fail to swive in areas with water-logged soils or oveta

Define Historical example of virulence? The "classical dogma" of epidemiologists was that pathogens all the time evolve in the direction of lower virulence, eventually becoming

Q. What do you mean by Pericardium? Pericardium is the sac covering the heart. Pericardium consists of two layers-the visceral pericardium (epicardium) and the parietal pericar