Lead, Biology


It is common cause of poisoning in cattle. Lead poisoning in other species is limited by reduced accessibility, more selective eating habits, or lower susceptibility. In cattle, many cases are associated with seeding and harvesting activities when used oil and battery disposal from machinery is handled improperly. Other sources of lead include paint, linoleum, grease, lead weights, lead shot, and contaminated foliage growing near smelters or along roadsides. Lead poisoning is also encountered in urban environments, and  old houses painted with lead-based paint has been associated with lead poisoning in small animals. After consumption, small portion of lead is absorbed and it is excreted through bile, urine and milk. It causes encephalopathy, gastroenteritis and degeneration of peripheral nerves.

In acute poisoning, animals reveal muscle tremors, champing of jaw, salivation, blindness, muscular twitching, convulsion, hyperasthesia and death. In chronic cases, head pressing, long standing posture, circling, excitement, blindness and mania, grinding of teeth, ruminal stasis, gastroenteritis and abdominal pain are noticed. Animals die as a result of respiratory failure during convulsions. It is diagnosed by clinical signs or by measuring the level of lead in blood and also detected indirectly by measuring delta aminolevulinic acid which decreases in blood in lead toxicity.

Lead levels in various tissues may be useful to evaluate excessive accumulation and to reflect the level or duration of exposure, severity, and prognosis and the success of treatment. Concentrations of lead in the blood at 0.35 ppm, liver at 10 ppm, or kidney cortex at 10 ppm are consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning in most species.

The animals can be treated with calcium versenate (calcium EDTA) given @ 100-200 mg/kg body weight intravenously thrice daily for 3-4 days. Thiamine given @ 2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously also helps in its treatment. Simultaneous use of Ca EDTA and vitamin B has synergistic effect. Use of 400-600 g magnesium sulphate orally precipitates lead.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:51:44 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Lead, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Lead, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Lead Discussions

Write discussion on Lead
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
what is the clear explanation of growth and development

what is the biological significance of skeleton

Q. Signs of constrictive pericarditis? 1) Jugular venous pressure (JVP) is elevated in all patients of CP which reflects the elevated diastolic pressure of the right atrium.

Water is considered a universal solvent because- Select one: a. it can dissolve polar and non-polar compounds b. it can dissolve both positively and negatively charged ions a

Q. Requirements of various nutrients in constipation? The requirements of various nutrients are not altered in constipation. It is essentially a normal balanced diet (normal RD

Q. Can High blood pressure cause coronary sclerosis? High blood pressure causes coronary sclerosis (hardening in early stages, fatty lesions in the inner surface of [he artery

Reasons for Uneven Distribution of Power The causes for uneven distribution of the power of regeneration among animals are not noticeably known. From a survey of the regenerat

Q. Can you explain Salmonellosis Salmonellosis is a common food bome disease all over the world. There are approximately 1600 different strains (sero types) of Salmonell

Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Q. Definition of Osseointegration in microscopic biophysical? Osseointegration implies that at light microscopic and electron microscopic levels, the identifiable components of