Job Characteristics Model
Hackman and Oldman's model discovers the five job characteristics and their relationships to personal and work outcomes.
By using the model, the work can be redesigned and increase the level of motivation.
There are five core job dimensions given below:
1. Skill Variety. Can the worker use a number of various skills and talents?
2. Task Identity. Does the worker complete a whole and identifiable piece of work?
3. Task Significance. Does the work have substantial consequences for the lives and work of other people?
4. Autonomy. Does the worker have freedom or he has independence, and discretion in carrying out the work?
5. Feedback. Does the individual receive direct and clear information about his or her effectiveness?
The first three characteristics are increasing the perceived meaningfulness of the work. Autonomy leads to increases in perceived personal responsibility. Feedback gives the individual knowledge of the original results of the activities. These 3 "critical psychological states" which is meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge lead to the following personal and work outcomes like high internal work motivation, high satisfaction, high-quality work performance and low absenteeism and turnover.