Job analysis methods has been conducted in several ways and selection of specific method will be based on the purposes for which the information is to be used (job evaluation, pay increases, development etc.)
There are 5 methods of job analysis:
(a) Questionnaires: The job analyst administers a structured questionnaire to employees who then identify the tasks they perform in accomplishing the job.
There are two types of questionnaires:
(1) The structured questionnaire uses a standardized list of work activities, called a task inventory which job incumbents or supervisors may identify as related to the job. In addition, the respondent may also identify additional information such as how much time is spent on the task, the amount of supervision required, and/or the expertise required.
(2) The open-ended questionnaire asks the job incumbent to describe the work in his or her own words.
(b) Observation: The job analyst witnesses the work being performed and records his or her observations. An observer will record what the worker does, how the work is done, and how long it takes. This method is primarily used to gather information on jobs emphasizing on manual skills such as a machine operator.
There are two types of observation:
(1) Continuous observation involves observing a job over a given period of time.
(2) Sampling involves observing several incumbents over random, relatively short periods of time. Observation is a simple and frequently used method of job analysis.
(c) Interview: An understanding of the job may also be gained through interviewing both the employee and the supervisor. Sometimes more than one worker is interviewed, and the results are aggregated. Another variation is the group interview, where several incumbents are interviewed at the same time. Interview includes structured Interviews, unstructured interview and open - ended questions.
(d) Employee recording: Job analysis information may be gathered through the employees describing their daily work activities in a diary or log. With this method, the valuable understanding of highly specialized jobs such as recreational therapist maybe be obtained.
(e) Combination: A combination of the preceding job analysis methods is often used to collect job information. For example, in analyzing and administrative jobs, the analyst might use questionnaires supported by job interviews and limited observation. In studying production jobs, interviews supplemented by extensive work observation may provide the necessary data.