Issues impacting health and development - inequity, Biology

Inequity

This refers to the needy sections (i.e. the poorest twenty percent of the population) receiving proportionately low share of public health spending. In most developing countries, it has been observed that the poorest 20 per cent of the population receive less than 20 per cent of the benefits from public spending. A distinction can be made between total health spending and spending on basic health care. The latter refers to spending on primary health services which are mostly needed by the poorest. Thus, if poor people are to benefit, more resources must go to primary health care.

2030_Issues Impacting Health and Development.png


Ideally, public spending on primary health care should vary inversely with the level of development of an economy. This is to say, as an economy develops it can afford to spend less on primary health services; or, till such time an economy is still developing, a larger share of public spending should go towards primary health services. One of the indicators reflecting on the health status and consequently the development of an economy is child mortality rate (i.e. number of children dying before attaining age-five). In countries where fewer than 70 out of 1000 children die before age five, the poorest 20 per cent receive more than 25 per cent of total spending on primary health care (HDR, 2003). In contrast, in countries where child mortality rates are between 70 and 140, the poorest 20 per cent get less than 15 per cent of public spending on primary health care. In still extreme cases i.e. in countries where the child mortality rates are higher than 140, the poorest 20 per cent account for less than 10 per cent of hospital use while the richest 20 per cent get around 40 per cent of public health care. Egalitarian spending, however, requires that public investment in health should be more on providing the basic health services needed by the poor.


The impact of inequity is more in rural areas where need for publicly funded health services is greater. There is severe shortage of medical personnel in these areas. The para medical personnel (comprising of nurses, trained birth attendants and community health workers) are regarded as the limbs and bones of the health system. Their ratio to doctors is considered to reflect the state of health services of the country. This is much adverse in developing countries as compared to the developed ones. For instance, in case of high achieving countries (with higher life expectancy and lower under-five mortality rate), the ratio of nurses to doctors (around the year 1990) was in the range of 4 to 10 (e.g. Zimbabwe 9.5; Thailand 4). The corresponding ratio for low achieving countries was below 2 (e.g. India 1.5, Bangladesh 1). Efforts to deploy medical personnel in underserved areas are usually unsuccessful. Measures suggested to redress such imbalances include:

(i) increasing the number of nurses, paramedics and community health workers;

(ii) using service contracts to require medical personnel to spend a certain number of years in public
service;
(iii) having donors fund some recurrent costs in order to have the most essential minimum number of health personnel and other supporting infrastructure of health.


Countries in Latin America, Philippines, Tanzania, Malaysia, etc. have successfully implemented some of these measures to achieve better equity standards in matters of health service delivery.

 

 

Posted Date: 12/15/2012 4:59:26 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Issues impacting health and development - inequity, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Issues impacting health and development - inequity, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Issues impacting health and development - inequity Discussions

Write discussion on Issues impacting health and development - inequity
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Q. Are there differences between the male and female skeletons? Many general differences exist between female and male skeletons. Male skeleton is normally larger and heavier t

Define Surgery Process for Head and Neck Tumor? Treatment mostly involves combination of surgery and radiation. Chemotherapy is also used in some cases, we will learn about the

Are environmental phenotypical changes transmitted to the offspring? Changes caused on phenotypes by the environment are not transmitted to the offspring (unless their primary

Define Requirements of Chromium? There is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for chromium but adequate intakes that can be used as a goal for individual intakes has been pr

Nutrition of Embryo Sac The morphology of the ovule suggests that the chalazal end is the main route for the entry of nutrients. The funicular vascular supply ends at the bas

Define the Historical Process of Spatial processes? In year 1952 Alan Turing developed his theory of the generation of pattern in systems of reaction diffusion equations, now k

GROWTH RATE IN ANIMALS - Growth rate is different at different periods of life. Growth period in human may be studied in 5 steps - (i) Prenatal - In gestation period fo

what are the limitation of mendelian experiment

Signify the term - Pectoral girdle. Bones in vertebrates that connect the appendages on the left and right side of the anterior appendicular skeleton to each other. Pectoral gi

What are the phytoplankton and the zooplankton? Phytoplankton and zooplankton are parts of the plankton. The phytoplankton comprises the autotrophic floating beings: cyanobacte