International business involves the management of international risk. To minimize risks commercial parties utilize independent guarantees and standby letters of credit.
(a) Discuss and compare independent guarantees and standby letters of credit, their use and significance in international trade.
(b) Discuss and compare the URDG (Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees) and the ISP98 (International Standby Practices). Which would you advise a commercial party to use in international trade, and provide reasons?
(c) The United Nations Convention on Independent Guarantees and Standby Letters of Credit (Convention) has been adopted by eight nations. Compare the operation of the Convention with the URDG and the ISP98. Should [Australia] ratify the Convention?