International Monetary Fund:
The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the International Trade Organisation were conceived at the Brettonwoods Conference in July, 1944 as institutions to strengthen international economic cooperation and to help create a more stable and prosperous global economy. While the IMF and the World Bank came into existence and started functioning from 1946, the International Trade Organisation could not be set up. Instead, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was set up in 1947. Through successive rounds of negotiations, the GATT got transformed into what has come to be known as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) that started functioning from January 1, 1995. The various institutions have been set up to govern international economic relations. While all the institutions work in close coordination with each other, each of these institutions has its own specific area of responsibilities. The IMF promotes international monetary cooperation and provides member countries with policy advice, temporary loans, and technical assistance so they can establish and maintain financial stability and external viability and build and maintain strong economies. The World Bank promotes long-term economic development and poverty reduction by providing technical and financial support. The WTO seeks to achieve the same objective by providing a trade environment in which goods and services may move between the nations, unrestrained by any restrictions or barriers. On a little regional level also international organisations have been set up. Among these, the most important for us has been the Asian Development Bank.