Interdependence of macroeconomics and microeconomics , Macroeconomics



In microeconomics, the underlying assumption is that the total output, total employment and total spending are given. It then goes on to examine how the given volume of output and employment can be best allocated between various individual industries and firms within industries, and how prices of individual products are determined. What microeconomics takes as given - total output, total employment, etc. - is what macroeconomics seeks to explain. What macroeconomics take as given - the distribution of output, employment, and total spending - is what microeconomics seeks to explain. Also, microeconomics takes the general price level as given, whereas it is a variable which has to be explained in macroeconomics; the relative prices are assumed to be given in macroeconomics but is a variable in microeconomics. Thus, macroeconomic theory has a foundation in microeconomic theory and microeconomic theory has a foundation in macroeconomic theory. In other words, there is an interdependence between the two. In practice, analysis of the economy is not done separately in two watertight compartments. When macroeconomic variables are analyzed, one must allow for changes in microeconomic variables that influence the macroeconomic variables and vice versa.

Shift of Emphasis from Microeconomics to Macroeconomics

Before the 1930s, economists emphasized microeconomics because it seemed there was not much to say about macroeconomics. The accepted macroeconomic theory then was that total output, in the short run, was more in the nature of a constant than a variable. All the resources in the economy would be fully employed. The output would be the full employment level of output.

If this were indeed the case, the only relevant question is whether or not the fully employed resources are being used in the best possible manner; in other words, whether or not the resources are optimally allocated among competing lines of production.

It is to be noted that the question of optimal allocation of resources assumes importance only when the resources are fully employed. In such a scenario, there is a scarcity of resources and thus there is an opportunity cost of using resources in certain lines of production and not in others. The resources have to be so allocated such that the opportunity cost is minimized and thus the benefit to the economy is maximized. This is the domain of microeconomics. However, when the resources in the economy are not fully employed, the question of optimal allocation of resources is not of much importance.

This is because, in such a scenario, resources are not actually scarce. To produce an additional output of any kind does not require the diversion of resources from being employed in other kinds of output because of the availability of idle resources. The opportunity cost of producing additional output of any kind is almost zero. Thus, whenever the economy departs from full utilization of resources, macroeconomics assumes greater importance than microeconomics This was precisely the case in the 1930s when there was large-scale persistent unemployment in Europe and America and thus macroeconomics shot into prominence. Full employment was no more taken for grante

Posted Date: 9/11/2012 2:24:10 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Interdependence of macroeconomics and microeconomics , Assignment Help, Ask Question on Interdependence of macroeconomics and microeconomics , Get Answer, Expert's Help, Interdependence of macroeconomics and microeconomics Discussions

Write discussion on Interdependence of macroeconomics and microeconomics
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
reason why the change in equilibrium of output is greater than the change in initial invest ..

Compare and contrast federal government expenditures, state and local government expenditures, and financing government expenditures. Suggest a total of three actions that should b

An example of direct foreign investment is given by: a. The sale of U.S. government bonds to foreigners. b. The sale of U.S. stocks (equities) to foreigners. c. A multinational cor

Examine the pros and cons of commercial transactions in blood from the egoistic, the utilitarian, and the Kantian perspectives

Suppose a company is considering two investment projects. Both projects require an upfront expenditure of $30 million. The company estimates that the cost of capital is 10% and tha

How do countries grow Economic growth? Economic growth is attaining by increasing: • Quantity of resources by investment • Quality of resources by training as well as R

In reference to the above question, assume you know the combination of inputs that minimizes cost. What would happen to this input combination if the price of labor increased? What

The inhabitants of Fantasia live for two periods, 0 and 1. They consume a nonrenewable resource called Fantasium in each period. Fantasium has to be extracted from the ground and t

Do you agee or disagree " Economic theory helps society reach economic goals that it has selected for itself?" Justify your answer.