IMPLEMENTATION OF ECONOMIC POLICIES:
Innumerable studies are available to document these failures of policy and planning. However, there are vast differences of opinion concerning whether or what kind of policy or state failure it is. No doubt, in a democracy, as a nation we have not been able to translate the national ideals into reality. It may be mentioned that the better-off sections often misleadingly hold the population explosion and persistence of illiteracy as the culprits for our failures. It does not seem to be understood that this view amounts to blaming the victims of these failures and absolving the beneficiaries of this situation, who, moreover, are in the commanding position. Inability to popularise planned-parenthood and extension of elementary education to all are among the major manifestations and results of our policy and state failure, rather than their causes.
In this background, this unit throws light on how the policy implementation has been poor in India and consequences and implications thereof. One of the severe consequences is the emergence and flourishing of the parallel economy. Hence, the concept, nature and effects of parallel economy have been discussed in the later part of this unit.