Implantation - Pre-Embryonic Development
After entering the uterus and formation of ICM, the blastocyst starts to embed in the endometrium of the uterine wall. By one week after fertilization the trophoblast secretes enzymes which digest the tissues and blood vessels of the uterine wall. The invading trophoblast differentiates into two layers, the outer syncytiotrophoblast and the inner cellular layer. Like the syncytiotrophoblast swallows more blood vessels in the uterine wall lacunae develop in the syncytiotrophoblast that get filled up with blood from the mother and exchange of gases takes place here. So a primitive utero- placental circulation is established. This nourishes the embryo till the placenta is made. By the 10th day the blastocyst is totally embedded in the uterine wall.
This kind of implantation in which the embryo gets fully embedded is termed as interstitial implantation. The trophoblast begins to secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG causes the corpus luteum to be maintained and to carry on to secrete estrogen and progesterone. Sometimes implantation may occur outside the uterus at some other location. In that case it is an ectopic pregnancy. The implantation site might be the fallopian tube or even the abdominal cavity. In ectopic pregnancy the embryo has to be surgically removed as if it is not done, it can lead to tuba1 rupture, internal bleeding, shock and possible death. At the beginning of the second week a small cavity appears between the trophoblast and ICM. This is the amniotic cavity that will grow around the embryo and later the foetus, It is a fluid filled cavity that act as an insulator against shocks, cold and heat. At similar time the ICM also differentiates into two layers, the upper epiblast which provides rise to the embryo and the lower hypoblast which gives rise to the extraembryonic membranes.