Q. Illustrate about Sterilization protocol?
Sterilization protocol includes proper transportation and cleaning of instruments followed by their packing. Items can be sterilized using modalities like dry heat such as flaming, or moist heat like pasteurization, boiling though highly unreliable as a sterilization technique and more effective for disinfection, it is used very often. Autoclave means self locking and is used to denote an apparatus that sterilizes by use of steam under pressure. It operates on same principle as pressure cookers. Radiation is cold sterilization with no heat involved; non ionising radiation include infrared and UV rays. Lethal effect is through generation of heat and DNA damage. Penetration is low but efficacy is high. By chemicals such as alcohols: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol; aldehydes: formaldehyde: widely employed for the fumigation of operation theatres. Gutaraldehyde: commercial preparations are active at different pH and have percentage of 2-3.2. They can destroy microbes in 10 hours. Gases: ethylene oxide. The choice of opting for a particular mode of sterilization depends on the physical and chemical properties of the items to be sterilized. Proper sterilization needs to be coupled with aseptic storage envoirnment.
Second part of infection control includes operatory room protocol which starts with preparation of operatory followed by preparation of patient and the operator. For the operator use of personal protective equipment (PPE) - clothing, masks, eyewear, and gloves and Hand washing is considered important measures to reduce the risk of transmitting organisms to patients and HCWs (health care workers). The purpose of washing is twofold: to reduce the both transient and resident flora for the duration of a procedure to protect the operator in the event that there is non-intact skin on the hand, thereby accomplishing the aim of maintaining the "chain of asepsis".