Hypothalamus gland, Biology


Hypothalamus develops from the ectoderm of the embryo.

Location and Structure. It lies below or inferior to the thalamus. The hypothalamus is connected to the anterior lobe of pituitary gland by hypophysial portal veins, however it is connected to the posterior lobe of pituitary gland mainly by axons of neurosecretory cells.

Hormones. The neurosecretory cells (neurons) of hypothalamus secrete hormones called neurohormones (releasing factors).

(i) Adrenocorticotropic Releasing hormone (ARH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

(ii) Thyrotropin Releasing hormone (TRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotrophin.

(ill) Somatotropin Releasing hormone (SRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pihlitary gland to release its growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin.

(iv) Growth Inhibiting hormone (GIH) somatostatin (SS) - It inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

(v) Gonadotropin Releasing hormone (GnRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete two gonadotropic hormones: (follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH).

(vi) Prolactin Releasing hormone (PRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its prolactin.

(vii) Prolactin Inhibiting hormone (PIH) - It inbihits the secretion of prolactin from the ante rior lobe of pituitary gland. (viii) Melanocyte Releasing hormone (MRH) - It stimulates the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH).

(ix) Melanocyte Inhibiting hormone (MIH) - It inhibits the secretion of melanocyte stimulating hormone from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.

Target Cells. Neurohormones act on the cells of the pituitary gland.


Releasing of Inhibiting Hormones

Control and Regulation of Specific Hormones


Thyrotropin releasing hormones (TR H )

Stimulates  thyrotropin stimulating hormone release

Growth hormone releasing hormone (G H R H )

Stimulates  growth hormone release

Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (G H IH )

Inhibits  growth hormone release


Gonadotropin  releasing hormone (G nR H )

Stimulates release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising  hormone

Prolactin re leas in g horm one (P R H )

Stimulates  prolactin release

Prolac tin inhibiting horm one (P IH )

Inhibits  prolactin release

Adrenocorticotropic  hormone  releasing  hormone



Stimulates  adrenocorticotropic  hormone

Melanocyte stimulating hormone releasing hormone (M R H)


Stimulates  melanocyte stimulating hormone release

Melanocyte stimulating hormone inhibiting hormone (M IH )


Inhibits  melanocyte  stimulat ing  hormone  release

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 6:34:18 AM | Location : United States

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