Hybridization, chemistry, Microeconomics

What is Hybridization?

Atomic orbitals can be combined, in a process called hybridization in chemistry, to describe the bonding in polyatomic molecules. Descriptions of the bonding in CH4 can be used to illustrate the valence bond procedure. We must arrive at four bonds projecting from the carbon atom in procedure. We must arrive at four bonds projecting from the carbon atom in tetrahedral directions. 

Lithus Pauling pointed out that the 2s and 3p orbitals of the carbon atom could be used to form new orbitals better suited to the description of the bonds. This procedure of combining orbitals to form new ones is called hybridization, and the new sets are called hybrid orbitals. The most suitable set can be found, according to Pauling, by forming wave functions which project out farthest from the central atom. When the four orbitals that they are concentrated along tetrahedral directions. Thus the sp3 hybrid orbitals are tetrahedrally oriented and are suitable for describing the bonding in CH4.

Other combinations of s, p and d orbitals can be constructed to provide orbitals suitable for molecules of other shapes, hybrid orbitals that project in linear, trigonal, tetrahedral and octahedral directions are produced by the combinations. The trigonal and linear hybrids, which leave one p and two p orbitals of the atom unchanged, are the basis for descriptions of double and triple bonds. The p orbitals form bonds and supplement the σ bonds, to notice that σ and  bonds are similar to those constructed for homonuclear diatomic molecules.

Hybrid orbitals from symmetry: the hybrid orbitals constructed by Pauling led to the geometry, or symmetry, of the molecule for which they were constructed. If the geometry of the molecule is taken as known, the approximate hybrid orbitals can be deduced from symmetry consideration alone. Consider the four tetrahedrally arranged carbon atom bond orbitals needed in this approach to describe the bonding in methane. For these orbitals the characters for the various symmetry operations of the Td group can be seen by calculating the number of unchanged bond orbitals, or bond lines, for each operation. We obtain:

Td E 8C3 3C2 d 6S4
σorb 4 1 0 2 0
                    
Thus we need atomic orbitals that transform as A1 and T2 to provide the basis for the tetrahedrally directed hybrid orbitals. The totally symmetric s atomic orbital transforms according to A1. In a similar way, the hybrid combinations of table can be deduced from the symmetry of the bonding situation for which they are to be used.

Some Hybridization used in describing σ bonding:

Number of orbitals Shape Atomic-Orbital Combinations
Example
2 Linear sp CH≡CH
3 Trigonal sp2 CH2-> CH2, BF3
4 Tetrahedral sp3 or sd3 CH4, MnO4-
  Square planner dsp2 PtCl24-, Ni(CN)24-
5 Trigonal bipyramid dsp3 PCl5, Fe (CO)5
6 Octahedron d2sp3 PtF6, CoF26-

Posted Date: 2/15/2012 8:16:20 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Hybridization, chemistry, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Hybridization, chemistry, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Hybridization, chemistry Discussions

Write discussion on Hybridization, chemistry
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
factor afecting the demand for durable product

how can we solve central problems of economy in different econmy?

Differentiate between inflation and unemployment.  Inflation is an increase in the general price level that results in a decline in the purchasing power of money. In economics,

1. Calculate price elasticity of demand and supply for the following functions when (a) P=8 and (b) Q=6. i. P= 40 - 0.5Q ii. Q= -40 + 0.75P iii

Market supply and Increase in supply: Market supply is the total quantity of a product that all firms in an industry are willing to offer for sale at a given market price an

Disadvantages of division of labour: Division of labour may also have disadvantages that may include the following: (i) Lack of Craftsmanship Division of labour does not m

A 1500 word research paper on the economic, social or environmental effects of the widespread use of robots in factories (this meets Learning Outcome 4)

Returns from Education Monetary benefits from education are called as returns. Such benefits accruing to an individual are called as private returns. The sum of all private re

Discuss whether inflation or deflation is the more serious problem for an economy. Inflation is a consistent general enhance in the price level, whereas deflation is a consiste

What is the Molarity and Normality of the ferrous ammonium salt ? For exam....196 gm (initial)