Human respiratory system - larynx, Biology


  • Study of larynx is known as Laryngeology. In man it is more prominent than woman known as Adam's apple.
  • It is sound producing organ. At its base trachea present. It is modification of trachea.
  • It is situated at 4th, 5th, 6th position of cervical vertebrae. Glottis opens into it.
  • Glottis is covered by epiglottis, it allows only air, not food to enter into it.


  • Wall of larynx is supported by four cartilages.
  • A broad C-shaped thyroid cartilage supports in the front and sides.
  • A pair of small triangular aretenoid strengthen its back wall.
  • Each aretenoid bears a node at its upper end i.e., cartilage of santorini.
  • A ring like cricoid cartilage present at base.
  • A thyroid membrane extends between the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage.
  • Inside the larynx are 2 pairs of vocal cord, made up of stratified squamous epithelium.
  • Upper pair is small and false. Lower pair is large and true.
  • In male 2-3 cms long, in female 1.7 cm long.
  • For the production of sound, the vocal cords are brought parallel and closer to each other by the action of laryngeal muscles.
  • Now a current of air is passed through them under pressure from the lungs.
  • This sets the vocal cords into vibration. Which results in the production of sound.
  • Buccal cavity, soft palate and tongue assist in speech.
Posted Date: 10/1/2012 8:49:49 AM | Location : United States

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