Horse diseases-epidemiology, Biology


Infection is transmitted   by direct contact between infected domestic and wild animals and susceptible livestock; by arthropod vector (Phlebotomus, Aedes and Culicoides etc.); mechanically by equipment such as teat cups and harness bits, via drinking water or feed contaminated with infected saliva and vesicular fluid. In endemic areas, the virus is maintained by transmission cycles between insects and wild mammals. The primary routes of human infection are the respiratory tract via infective aerosols
Clinical signs: The incubation period is 1-3 days. The earliest clinical signs include fever and loss of appetite, excessive salivation, difficulty in eating, lip smacking and lameness. Thin-walled, isolated or coalescing vesicles (blisters) may appear on the tongue, lips, gums, coronary bands, interdigital skin, or teats near the teat orifice. The vesicles readily rupture and resulting ulcers usually heal over the next 8-10 days. Morbidity is very variable but can be up to 100%. Mortality is low. In horses the turbinates, nasopharynx and larynx may be affected, resulting in nose bleeding and difficulty in eating and breathing. Coronary band lesions can lead to deformity and sloughing of the hoof. Lesions can occur on the udder or prepuce.

Diagnosis: Laboratory tests such as electron microscopy and ELISA can rapidly detect viral antigens and can provide a diagnosis within 4 hours. Tissue cultures (chick fibroblast, pig kidney, Vero and BHK-21), suckling mice or embryonated eggs can be used for virus isolation and subsequent characterization. Indirect sandwich ELISA is method of choice for virus serotyping. Serological tests including serum neutralization, complement fixation and competitive ELISA are useful for detection of antibodies.

Prevention and control:
Judicious slaughter of clinically affected animals, quarantine and movement controls on animal, animal products and things from disease declared areas will prevent spread of infection. Disease surveillance determines the source and extent of infection and provides proof of freedom from the disease. Vector control is required to protect valuable individual animals in declared areas and to reduce further transmission. Attenuated and inactivated vaccines have been tested with unknown efficacy. No commercial vaccine is as yet available. There is no cross-immunity between serotypes.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 8:02:36 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Horse diseases-epidemiology, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Horse diseases-epidemiology, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Horse diseases-epidemiology Discussions

Write discussion on Horse diseases-epidemiology
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
How many biochemicals would be detected in the stomach contents of an omnivorous dinosaur?

Define Tests of Cardiovascular Endurance? Cardiovascular endurance or aerobic fitness is the ability to exercise continuously for extended periods without tiring. It can be me

Ecological isolation is based on the fact that population shows preference to one habitat over the other. This extensive forests become barriers to the dispersal of organims living

Q. Where does most of the water resorbed after glomerular filtration go? What are the other substances resorbed by the nephron tubules? Only 0.5 to 1% of the glomerular filtrat

Read the information found in the Bioethics: Choices for the Future box on page 40 of the text entitled "Should you Bank your Stem Cells?"  Based on the information given, discuss

what are the organs of respiration in the lower form of animals?

Some drugs bind extensively to plasma proteins (Warfarin binds 99%) while others have virtually no binding. Extraction depends on the type of drug - there are dissimilar standar

Q. What is the estimated percentage (in mass) of water in the human body? Is this percentage expected to be larger in the adult or in the old individual? Ans. Approximatel

If a person has a stomach ulcer (that is aggravated by excessive hydrochloric acid {HCl} secretion ), why on earth would he or she be drinking milk to feel better, when milk is als

Oligosaccharides Compounds containing 2 to 6 monosaccharides units joined by a glycosidic  linkage.