History of Transistor:
The great Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed the first patent for a transistor in Canada in the year 1925, explaining a device identical to a Field Effect Transistor or "FET" though, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices, nor did his patent cite any instances of devices actually constructed. In the year 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a similar device
From the year 1942 Herbert Mataré experimented with so-called Duodiodes when working on a detector for a Doppler RADAR system. The duodiodes made by him had two separate but very close metal contacts on the semiconductor substrate. He revealed effects that could not be described by two independently operating diodes and so formed the fundamental idea for the later point contact transistor.
In the year 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in the United States (US) observed that while electrical contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, the output power was larger than as compared to the input. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley observed the potential in this and over the next some months worked to very much expand the knowledge of semiconductors. The term transistor was coined by John R. Pierce as per to physicist/historian Robert Arns, legal papers from the Bell Labs patent display that William Shockley and Gerald Pearson had built operational versions from Lilienfeld's patents, yet they never ever referenced this work in any of their later research papers or historical articles. The name transistor is a portmanteau of the word "transfer resistor"
The first silicon transistor was generated by Texas Instruments in the year 1954.This was the effort of Gordon Teal, an expert in growing crystals of high purity, who had earlier worked at Bell Labs.The first MOS transistor actually built was by Kahng and Atalla at Bell Labs in the year 1960.