Historical differences in equity securities, Financial Management

Public Bourses

The origin of this type of bourses can be found in the legislative work of Napoleon. These type of bourses are regulated by the government, brokers are appointed by the government and they command a complete monopoly over all the settlements. Brokerage firms are private and new brokers are proposed to the state for nomination by the brokers' association. Earlier stock exchanges in Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, Greece and some Latin American countries were run by their respective governments. Before deregulation, the Paris bourses were also of this type. Commissions and other relevant matters were decided by the government. The main beneficiaries of this system are brokers because they command complete monopoly as their number is fixed. Even for a private deal arranged by two banks, the transactions had to legally go through the brokers. Deregulation affects this kind of bourses, because brokers tend to lose their monopoly.

Private Bourses

Private Stock Exchanges are originally founded by the independent members for the purpose of stock trading. Several private stock exchanges can exist and operate within a country; for example, functioning of several stock exchanges in the US, Japan and Canada. However, in some countries like the UK, one prominent stock exchange dominates the other small stock exchanges. Although these bourses are private, they are not free of government regulation. A mix of self-regulation and government supervision is required to make all these exchanges Self-Regulatory Organizations (SROs). In private exchanges, members are supposed to perform all the work on the floor of the exchange and commissions are usually fixed in accordance with the agreement between stock exchanges and the public authority. Private bourses are active in Canada, Australia, South Africa and Japan.

Bankers' Bourses

In some countries, only banks are permitted to trade in stocks. For example, in Germany, the Banking Act allows only banks to function as brokerage firms and so they enjoy a complete monopoly. Bankers' bourses are found in some other countries like Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. These type of bourses can be private or semi-public entities. Their main function is to provide a convenient place for banks to interact. Many regional bankers' bourses are directly linked to the local Chambers of Commerce. Bankers can trade directly without any involvement of official bourses but regulation is applied to both - the bourses and the attached bank.

 

Posted Date: 9/10/2012 5:26:00 AM | Location : United States







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